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January 31, 2015 / 11 Shevat, 5775
 
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Before The Deluge: Jews Of The Mediterranean Islands (Part I)


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Under Turkish dominion, Jews were able to emigrate from Salonika. The newcomers also busied themselves with trade, craftsmanship, and professions. In the harbor there were Jewish barges and stevedores in no small numbers.

Sources report of a lively synagogue life in the 15thand 16th centuries. The oldest three-barged synagogue dated from the time of the order of Christian knights.

At the turn of the 20th century there was an exodus to the Asiatic mainland; nevertheless there remained behind about 4,000 Jews of a total population of 30,000.  Since then, this number has not been much reduced.

In most recent times one can even observe in Rhodes a cultural advance. In 1927 there was established a rabbinical high school, which also offered secular education in Italian, with Italian literature, and provided the community with spiritual leadership. In what is a sign of the times, the leader of this institution is a Talmud teacher and a doctor of law from the University of Zürich.

Cos

On the island of Cos there is evidence of a Jewish settlement from the second century BCE.  There were pilgrims from Cos to the great temple in Jerusalem. King Herod furnished the Jewish academy with decorations and presents.

In later times, Cos regularly received migrants from Rhodes, for example in 1685, when a new Jewish community was founded. The synagogue which was built in 1747 stands there to this day. The Jews of Cos support themselves though trading of wine and oil. Even as late as 1850 there still lived 50 Jewish families on the island, but only a third of this number still existed there in 1933. There is no rabbi, and they fall under the aegis of the rabbinate on Rhodes.

Lesbos and Lemnos

Lesbos is the largest island in the Aegean archipelago, and lies near the west cost of Asia Minor. It is also called Mytilene, and had an established Jewish population in ancient times. In 1170 Benjamin of Tudela found ten small Jewish communities there.  Nothing more is known about the history of Jews on Lesbos. In 1930 about 100 Jews lived on Lesbos.

At different times Lemnos was inhabited by Jews, but a larger community never arose there.

Next month: Crete and Corfu.

About the Author: Ezra James Nollet is a retired U.S. government chemist living in Poland where he is officer of the local synagogue in Legnica. Before the Deluge appears the last week of each month.


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The Joint Distribution Committee cared for the refugees, directed the care of children, renewed educational facilities, undertook the rebuilding of destroyed houses, etc. Through the year 1930 the Joint Committee distributed over $80 million to the different branches of its relief work, and even distributed aid via affiliated charities to Jewish agricultural settlements in the USSR.

book-Die-Juden-in-der-Velt

The Federation of Jewish Labor by the end of the 1920s consisted of some 125,000 members, of whom 60 percent were employed in the confections industry. After 1929 there was a further rise in the level of Jewish participation in workers’ unions. There were 134,020 Jewish members of the fifty largest trade unions, 34.1 percent of the total number of organized workers, which roughly reflected the level of the Jews in the population of greater New York. In the remaining centers of the garment industry, in Chicago, Philadelphia, and Rochester, almost all the owners were Jews and the workers they employed were mainly Jewish.

The outward orderliness of the new circumstances of life was not without inner quakings of a spiritual crisis. Mixed marriages were extremely frequent in the southern and western states, where Jews were sprinkled in among the Christian populations. They came to about a third of the marriages Jews entered. But after 1881 the picture changed, with the flood of Jewish immigrants into New York. From 1908-1912, only 1.17 percent of marriages involving Jews were mixed.

The (European) press began to busy itself with the problems of emigration. The Austrian Central Body of Jews, which arose in 1848, dedicated itself to this situation. In May of 1848 a Committee for the Promotion of Emigration was started.

On August 22 1654, the Sephardic Jew Jacob Bar-Simson landed in New Amsterdam. It appears he came from Holland. In the beginning of September of the same year, twenty-three Jews set sail for New Amsterdam, refugees from Pernambuco [Translator’s Note: Dutch South America). The ship Saint Charles, which functioned as the Jewish equivalent of the Mayflower for the first Jewish immigration to North America, brought them to the city today known as New York.

Before the beginning of the Common Era, Jews were known to have lived in Sparta, Sikyon, Delphi, Athens, Patras, Mantineja, Laconia, Corinth, Thessalalonika, Philippi, and Beroa. Due to baptism forced on Jews by some Byzantine emperors, a number of Jews emigrated o southern Italy. Otherwise, there was a line of Jewish communities in the 12th century. By itself Thebes housed 2,000 families, Salonika 500 families, and middle-sized settlements arose in Halmyros, Corinth, Drama, Krisa, Naupactos, Ravnica, Arta, and Lamia.

Under the influence of the Age of Enlightenment, the cultural union “Toalet” was formed, which published a number of works of by Hebraic scientists and works of fiction. In recent times, the Jewish-scientific movement has found its stride with the “Union of Jewish Science,” which was founded by S. Seeligmann, a historian and a bibliophile. In its university library, Amsterdam possesses a most valuable Jewish section, the so-called “Rosenthaliana,” which was named after the philanthropist Leiser Rosenthal, who was the father of the Baron von Rosenthal.

The present kingdom of Persia, which recently officially took the name “Iran,” encompasses a region of over 1,640,000 square kilometers with about 15 million inhabitants. The most important cities are the capital Tehran as well Tabris, Mesched, and Isfahan (the former capital).

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