web analytics
May 23, 2015 / 5 Sivan, 5775
At a Glance
InDepth
Sponsored Post


Home » InDepth » Op-Eds »

Chanukah 1917


Nearly two decades into the 20th century, Jews were suffering the horrors of pogroms, mass expulsions, starvation and disease in Eastern Europe while Jewish soldiers in various armies were enduring the carnage of the battlefield. Amid the horrors, however, a glimmer of hope appeared.

During the First World War, two powers fought over control of Palestine – the ruling Ottoman Turks of the Central powers and the British along with their allies of the Triple Entente. The outcome of the contest brought the ancient Jewish dream of the re-establishment of Jewish statehood in the Jewish homeland a little closer.

The situation in the land of Israel was grim. The Ottoman Turks oppressed the Jewish community. Thousands of Jews were exiled to Alexandria, Egypt, which was then under British control. In March 1917, Djemal Pasha, the local Turkish governor, ordered the deportation of all Jews in the Jaffa region and threatened a wholesale massacre against the Jews, openly declaring he would make the Jews share the fate of the Armenians. Before the war, 55,000 Jews resided in Jerusalem; by 1917, due to persecution, just 24,000 remained.

But the tide started to turn when British General Edmund Allenby led his outnumbered troops around Turkish forces in Gaza and on to victory at the strategic southern city of Beersheba in the Negev. As the campaign’s success became ever more likely, the British government issued the Balfour Declaration on November 2, 1917, which called for the “establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.”

The document was sent by British foreign minister Lord Arthur Balfour to Edmund De Rothschild, the great Jewish financier and a supporter of Jews living in Palestine.

On December 9, as Chanukah approached, Turkish forces surrendered. In the battles for Jerusalem some 20,000 Turkish soldiers and 3,600 British and allied troops lost their lives. Two days later, on December 11, the second day of Chanukah, British troops marched into Jerusalem. Allenby humbly entered its walls by foot through Jaffa Gate as the city’s 34th conqueror.

The London Jewish Chronicle headlined the event as “The Rising of Jerusalem,” describing the allied conquest as an “Epochal event.” Rabbi J.H. Hertz, chief rabbi of the British Empire, forwarded a telegram to Allenby that read, “British Jewry thrilled by glorious news from Palestine, sends heartfelt congratulations on historic entry into Holy City.”

With Jerusalem under British control, the campaign continued and soon Turkish forces were ousted from the entire Land of Israel. The Jewish Legion, headed by Lieutenant Colonel John Patterson, participated in the completion of the conquest.

Soon after, however, the initial euphoria faded. While the overall situation for the Jews improved under British control, hostilities with local Arabs intensified. Arab leaders in Palestine petitioned the British Foreign Office to halt the flow of Jewish immigration. British military authorities began to express disagreement with the aims of Zionism. The British commitment to the establishment of a Jewish homeland began to wither.

Within a few months of its release, British military authorities banned the Balfour Declaration’s publication in Palestine. By 1919, the British military administration pushed for an outright revocation of Balfour. Hebrew was not recognized as an official language and the British even banned the public performance of the Zionist national anthem, “Hatikvah.”

Yet Zionist hopes were again raised in 1920 when a British civil mandate replaced the military administration. A Jew sympathetic to Zionism, Herbert Samuel, was appointed high commissioner and the gates were opened to Jewish immigration. By the spring of 1921, 10,000 new Jewish immigrants had reached the shores of Palestine.

These developments triggered a violent reaction from the opponents of Zionism. Arab rioting soon broke out. Samuel succumbed to the pressure. Restrictions against the Zionists were again imposed, and the virulent anti-Zionist Haj Amin Al-Husseini was appointed mufti of Jerusalem.

Following Arab riots in 1929, the British set up the Shaw Commission which recommended more restrictions. In the wake of renewed Arab violence in 1936, the British Peel Commission recommended the partition of the land as a solution to the conflict, with the Jews apportioned a miniscule sliver of territory on the coast extending into the Galilee.

The Arabs, however, continued to oppose any partition. In a final act of capitulation, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain issued the MacDonald White Paper of 1939 which severely restricted Jewish immigration to a total of 75,000 over the next five years and called for the eventual establishment of one state with an Arab majority – a devastating blow not only to the Zionists but for the Jews of Europe who would be denied sanctuary in their greatest hour of need.

About the Author:


If you don't see your comment after publishing it, refresh the page.

Our comments section is intended for meaningful responses and debates in a civilized manner. We ask that you respect the fact that we are a religious Jewish website and avoid inappropriate language at all cost.

If you promote any foreign religions, gods or messiahs, lies about Israel, anti-Semitism, or advocate violence (except against terrorists), your permission to comment may be revoked.

No Responses to “Chanukah 1917”

Comments are closed.

Current Top Story
Tzipi Hotovely, new Deputy Foreign Minister.
Foreign Minister Hotovely: Tell the World ‘God Gave Israel to the Jews’
Latest Indepth Stories
Harris-052215

We take a whole person approach, giving our people assistance with whatever they need.

Shalev and Rabbi Levinger

During my spiritual journey I discovered G-d spoke to man only once, to the Jewish people at Sinai

MK Moshe-Feiglin

20 years after the great Ethiopian aliyah, we must treat them like everyone else; no better or worse

Sprecher-052215

Connecting Bamidbar&Shavuot is simple-A world without Torah is midbar; with Torah a blessed paradise

Many Black protesters compared Baltimore’s unrest to the Palestinian penchant of terrorism & rioting

She credited success to “mini” decisions-Small choices building on each other leading to big changes

Shavuot 1915, 200000 Jews were expelled; amongst the largest single expulsions since Roman times

Realizing there was no US military threat, Iran resumed, expanded & accelerated its nuclear program

“Enlightened Jews” who refuse to show chareidim the tolerance they insist we give to Arabs sicken me

Somewhat surprisingly, the Vatican’s unwelcome gesture was diametrically at odds with what President Obama signaled in an interview with the news outlet Al Arabiya.

The recent solid victory of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s Likud Party produced something very different.

The reaction is so strong that nine times out of ten, parents engage in some form of coping mechanism before arriving at a level of acceptance of a special-needs diagnosis.

“…his neshamah reached out to us to have the zechus of Torah learning to take with him on his final journey.”

The gap isn’t between Israeli and American Jews-it’s between American Jews and the rest of the world

More Articles from Larry Domnitch
Map of Europe during WW I

Shavuot 1915, 200000 Jews were expelled; amongst the largest single expulsions since Roman times

Colonel John Henry Patterson, Commander of the Jewish Legion

An eye-witness claimed, “British troops just stood by” while Arab attacked Jews in then Palestine

UN inspectors were flabbergasted when Iran allowed them full unfettered access to All nuclear sites

Expulsions perpetrated by the Russians during WWI were the worst against the Jews since Roman times.

Arab opposition to a Jewish State of any size was made known by word and deed in the form of terror

Rav Kook offered recognition to the British but not thanks; the British merely fulfilled its destiny

Germany’s The Jewish Faith newspaper ominously noted, “We Jews are in for a war after the war.”

Nearly two decades into the 20th century, Jews were suffering the horrors of pogroms, mass expulsions, starvation and disease in Eastern Europe while Jewish soldiers in various armies were enduring the carnage of the battlefield. Amid the horrors, however, a glimmer of hope appeared.

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/opinions/chanukah-1917/2010/12/01/

Scan this QR code to visit this page online: