Question: I understand that at a minyan, the chazzan is required to repeat Shemoneh Esreh out loud so that people who may not know how to daven can fulfill their obligation to daven with the chazzan’s repetition. What, however, should the chazzan do when he reaches Kedushah and Modim? I hear some chazzanim say every word of Kedushah out loud and some only say the last part of the middle two phrases out loud. As far as the congregation is concerned, I hear some congregants say every word of Kedushah and some say only the last part. Finally, some chazzanim and congregants say Modim during chazaras hashatz out loud and some say it quietly. What is the source for these various practices?
A Devoted Reader
Answer: The Shulchan Aruch Harav (Orach Chayim 124:1) explains that a chazzan repeats Shemoneh Esreh out loud to fulfill the prayer obligation of those who can’t pray on their own (see Rosh Hashanah 33b-34a).
The Mechaber (Orach Chayim 125:1) states that congregants should not recite Nakdishach [Nekadesh] together with the chazzan; rather they should remain silent and concentrate on the chazzan’s recitation until he finishes that portion, at which point they should say, “Kadosh, kadosh…” The Mishnah Berurah (ad loc. sk1) explains that congregants should remain quiet because the chazzan is their messenger, and if they say Nakdishach along with him, he no longer appears as their messenger.
The tefillah of Modim within the Amidah is so important that Berachot 21b instructs one who arrives late (after kedushah, explains Orach Chayim 109:1) to begin praying only if he will conclude before the chazzan reaches Modim. Tosafot explain that one must bow with the congregation at Modim in order that he not appear as a denier of G-d to whom they are praying (see Rabbenu Tam, Tosafot s.v. “ad sh’lo yagia…” Berachot 21b).
Rabbi Soloveitchik (as cited in Nefesh Horav by Rabbi Herschel Schachter, p. 128-129) notes that the congregation must listen to Modim of the chazzan and compares the question of what congregants should do during Modim to the question of what congregants should do during Birkat Kohanim, as discussed in Sotah 39b-40a. Rabbi Soloveitchick suggested that the chazzan recite the beginning of Modim out loud, pause for the congregants’ Modim D’Rabbanan, and then continue with his Modim blessing out loud.
Birkat Kohanim is part of chazaras hashatz but is said by kohanim (unless none are present in which case the chazzan says it). Bnei Ashkenaz in the diaspora do not have kohanim duchan other than on yomim tovim. The chazzan says it otherwise. We only answer “Amen,” however, when kohanim say it (Orach Chayim 127:2, citing the Rambam, Hilchot Tefillah 15:10). One prayer recited during Birkat Kohanim is “Ribono shel olam,” which the Mechaber (Orach Chayim 130:1, citing Berachot 55b) states should be saud by anyone who has a dream which he doesn’t understand.
We continue to discuss appropriate tefillot that can be recited by congregants during Birkat Kohanim.
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We noted (see Mishnah Berurah, Orach Chayim 130:1-7) that in the diaspora bnei Ashkenaz duchan only on festivals. The Mishnah Berurah, in his Bi’ur Halacha commentary (citing Machtzit Hashekel), presents the following interesting and very relevant question. We explained last week that everyone says the “Ribono shel olam” prayer concerning dreams during Birkat Kohanim since it is impossible that one has not dreamt in the months since the last festival. However, what about the second day of yom tov which we observe in the diaspora due to s’feika d’yoma? Surely, many people do not dream the night of the first day of the festival. Why, then, should they say “Ribono shel olam” prayer on the second day if they’ve already said it on the first day? The Mishnah Berurah notes that the common practice is for everyone to say “Ribono shel olam” on the second day as well and suggests that this is perhaps because of other people who may have dreamt about us. Hence, a person should not start from the beginning of “Ribono shel olam” and say “I dreamt a dream and I do not know what it relates.” Rather, he should start from “Yehi ratzon – May it be pleasing to You that all dreams…” since this section also talks of dreams that other people may have dreamt about us.