web analytics
July 13, 2014 / 15 Tammuz, 5774
Israel at War: Operation Protective Edge
 
 
At a Glance
Judaism
Sponsored Post
Meir Panim's Restaurant in Tiberias Restaurant in Tiberias Enriches Holocaust Survivors’ Wellbeing

The generosity of Mrs. Lee Steinberg of New York helped establish the Meir Panim Free Restaurant in Tiberias.



Q & A: Tying Knots On Shabbat (Part I)


QuestionsandAnswers-logo

Question: My son recently stopped wearing a necktie and lace-up shoes on Shabbat. He explained that he doesn’t want to transgress the prohibition against tying knots on Shabbat. Is tying a necktie or shoelaces really forbidden?

“A Mother in Israel” (Via E-Mail)

Answer: The Chayyei Adam (topic 26-27:1-2) states, “One who ties or unties a permanent knot [on Shabbat] that meets the criteria of a craftsman – such as knots used by camel drivers, sailors, shoemakers in the course of crafting shoes and sandals, and similar knots – is liable according to all views. There are those who say that any knot tied to last for a lengthy period is considered a permanent knot…. A knot that is tied to be untied every day is not considered a knot and one is allowed to both tie it and then untie it. However, in deference to those who view any knot that is squeezed tight as permanent, one should avoid untying [such a] knot unless it is a situation of great discomfort….”

The Chayyei Adam unusually classifies this halacha as one topic but gives it a twin numeric – “26-27” – since in many instances we are talking about a person actually committing two forbidden acts: tying and untying.

The source of this halacha is the mishnah in Perek Klal Gadol (Shabbos 73a). It lists the 39 primary labors prohibited on Shabbat. These were acts that were generally performed in constructing the Mishkan. The only exception is baking, which Rashi (s.v. “ha’ofeh”) notes was not performing in building the Mishkan.

The biblical source for prohibiting these melachot is derived from the beginning of Parshat Vayakhel, which details the construction of the Mishkan. Preceding the description of the construction is the following verse (Exodus 35:2): “Sheshet yamim te’aseh melacha u’vayom ha’shevi’i yiyeh lachem kodesh Shabbat shabbaton la’Shem kol ha’oseh bo melacha yumat – On six days, work may be done, but the seventh day shall be holy for you, a day of complete rest for Hashem; whoever does work on it shall be put to death.” Rashi cites the Mechilta which explains that this passage precedes the construction of the Mishkan to serve as a warning that the melachot necessary to build the Mishkan do not override Shabbat.

Listed among the 39 prohibited labors is tying and untying a knot. The mishnah at the beginning of Perek V’elu K’sharim (infra 111b) states: “And these are the knots for which one is liable [for violating the Sabbath]: the knot of the camel drivers and that of the sailors. And just as one is liable for having tied them, he is also liable for untying them…” Rashi (ad loc. “v’elu k’sharim”) explains: “These, where the knot is permanent (kesher shel kayama) – they are never undone – are considered avot melachot (principle labors prohibited on Shabbat), similar to the tying of the curtains’ threads [in the Mishkan] that were torn.”

The Mechaber (Orach Chayyim 317:1) adds: “…albeit that it is ‘ma’aseh uman’ (labor of a skilled craftsman). Then he is liable [and must bring a karban chatat]. Examples: the camel driver’s knot or that of the sailors and the knots on shoes or sandals that the shoemaker ties in the course of their manufacture and all that are like these. However, if one ties a permanent knot, but it is not of a skilled craftsmen, he is not liable [biblically, but is rabbinically prohibited from doing so].”

The Rema (ad loc.) notes: “There are those (Rashi, Rosh, Rabbenu Yerucham, and Tur) who disagree and opine that for any permanent knot, even if it is not of a skilled craftsman, one is liable. There are others who [go further and] opine that any knot that is not meant to be untied on that day [i.e. it will remain tied for a 24 hour period] is considered permanent. And there are others who are lenient and consider any knot that remains tied for less than seven days as not being permanent.”

The Mechaber (infra) also notes that “a knot that is not permanent and not of a skilled craftsman can be tied ab initio.” Rema adds: “This applies as well to untying it.”

Rabbi Moshe Sofer (Kaf HaChayyim, Orach Chayyim, ad loc. sk 2) makes the following observation: “It would seem to me that the Mechaber’s [distinction between tying violations that make one liable to a karban chatat and those that do not and are only rabbinically forbidden] is of no consequence today as we have no sin offerings. However, I do see a consequential difference and that is in regards to those whose testimony is invalidated. If one intentionally transgressed a violation that requires him to bring a korban chatat, he is considered an invalid witness whose testimony may not be accepted. Also, if one betroths a woman in his presence [depending on him as a witness] there is no need for a get [if the couple should wish to divorce]. However, if his transgression is only rabbinically prohibited, then in the same circumstance, they will need a get to divorce, because he is deemed a valid witness…”

About the Author: Rabbi Yaakov Klass, rav of Congregation K’hal Bnei Matisyahu in Flatbush, Brooklyn, is Torah Editor of The Jewish Press. He can be contacted at yklass@jewishpress.com.


If you don't see your comment after publishing it, refresh the page.

Our comments section is intended for meaningful responses and debates in a civilized manner. We ask that you respect the fact that we are a religious Jewish website and avoid inappropriate language at all cost.

If you promote any foreign religions, gods or messiahs, lies about Israel, anti-Semitism, or advocate violence (except against terrorists), your permission to comment may be revoked.

No Responses to “Q & A: Tying Knots On Shabbat (Part I)”

Comments are closed.

SocialTwist Tell-a-Friend

Current Top Story
Overhead power lines in Gaza
Electricity Knocked Out in Gaza (Thanks to Hamas)
Latest Judaism Stories
Leff-071114

Sometimes when Chazal say that two different people are really one, they do not mean it literally, but rather figuratively.

Pinchas 10 Minute Parsha

The midrash says that Pinchas, (this parsha), and Eliyahu, prophet of Kings, are one and the same.

Lessons-Emunah-logo

The simple act of kindness should be the reward itself. Anything more in the form of a reward is gravy.

Business-Halacha-logo

“It is sometimes possible through hataras nedarim, nullification of vows,” replied Rabbi Dayan, “but it’s not simple for charity pledges.

The kohen gadol may not enter the Temple unless his hair is cut every seven days.

We need to understand why Moshe Rabbeinu decided to ask that his sons inherit his position after this new halacha was introduced.

Ancient Cities, Ancient Walls
(Megillah 3b-4a)

Question: I recently returned from a trip abroad and wanted to say HaGomel. When I mentioned this to the officers of my synagogue, however, they told me – as per the instructions of the synagogue’s rabbi – that I would have to wait until Shabbos to do so. I was not given any reason for this and did not wish to display my ignorance, so I quietly acquiesced. Can you please explain why I had to wait?

Name Withheld
(Via E-Mail)

Moshe served dual major roles for bnei Yisrael. He was their teacher and their leader.

An opinion recorded in the Talmud states that prayers correspond to the daily sacrifices offered in the Temple that are mentioned in this week’s portion (Berachot 26b, Numbers 28:4). It’s been argued that this opinion may be the conceptual base for our standardized prayer. Since sacrifices had detailed structure, our prayers also have a set text. […]

Is the fact that we can spend time with our families just a fringe benefit of Shabbos or an integral aspect?

Respect for basic human dignity is such a powerful concept that it overwhelms some areas of Jewish law.

If it is not prohibited when there is a purpose for inflicting the tza’ar, why was Bilam chastised for tza’ar ba’alei chaim?

Question: I recently returned from a trip abroad and wanted to say HaGomel. When I mentioned this to the officers of my synagogue, however, they told me – as per the instructions of the synagogue’s rabbi – that I would have to wait until Shabbos to do so. I was not given any reason for this and did not wish to display my ignorance, so I quietly acquiesced. Can you please explain why I had to wait?

Name Withheld
(Via E-Mail)

More Articles from Rabbi Yaakov Klass
Questions-Answers-logo

Question: I recently returned from a trip abroad and wanted to say HaGomel. When I mentioned this to the officers of my synagogue, however, they told me – as per the instructions of the synagogue’s rabbi – that I would have to wait until Shabbos to do so. I was not given any reason for this and did not wish to display my ignorance, so I quietly acquiesced. Can you please explain why I had to wait?

Name Withheld
(Via E-Mail)

Question: I recently returned from a trip abroad and wanted to say HaGomel. When I mentioned this to the officers of my synagogue, however, they told me – as per the instructions of the synagogue’s rabbi – that I would have to wait until Shabbos to do so. I was not given any reason for this and did not wish to display my ignorance, so I quietly acquiesced. Can you please explain why I had to wait?

Name Withheld
(Via E-Mail)

Question: I recently returned from a trip abroad and wanted to say HaGomel. When I mentioned this to the officers of my synagogue, however, they told me – as per the instructions of the synagogue’s rabbi – that I would have to wait until Shabbos to do so. I was not given any reason for this and did not wish to display my ignorance, so I quietly acquiesced. Can you please explain why I had to wait?

Name Withheld
(Via E-Mail)

Question: I recently returned from a trip abroad and wanted to say HaGomel. When I mentioned this to the officers of my synagogue, however, they told me – as per the instructions of the synagogue’s rabbi – that I would have to wait until Shabbos to do so. I was not given any reason for this and did not wish to display my ignorance, so I quietly acquiesced. Can you please explain why I had to wait?

Name Withheld
(Via E-Mail)

    Latest Poll

    Israel's Iron Dome Anti-Missile System:





    View Results

    Loading ... Loading ...

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/judaism/ask-the-rabbi/q-a-tying-knots-on-shabbat-part-i/2012/01/11/

Scan this QR code to visit this page online: