web analytics
August 23, 2014 / 27 Av, 5774
Israel at War: Operation Protective Edge
 
 
At a Glance
Judaism
Sponsored Post
Jerusalem Mayor Nir Barkat (L) visits the JewishPress.com booth at The Event. And the Winners of the JewishPress.com Raffle Are…

Congratulations to all the winners of the JewishPress.com raffle at The Event



He Told Me!

Business-Halacha-logo

“Today we will learn about oaths,” Rabbi Dayan announced to his shiur. “There are many sugyos [passages] in the Gemara that deal with imposing an oath.”

Avrumi raised his hand. “I heard that you’re supposed to avoid swearing,” he said. “Then why does the Gemara talk about it a lot?”

“Certainly, a person must take the utmost care when uttering an oath, as the prohibition of swearing falsely is extremely severe,” replied Rabbi Dayan. “As a rule, the phrase ‘I swear’ should be expunged from your vocabulary. However, there are three cases in which the Torah itself imposes an oath in the context of beis din in order to ascertain the truth.”

“For example?” asked Avrumi.

“One case is where there is a single witness,” answered Rabbi Dayan. “Let’s say you claim that your friend borrowed $100 from you and he denies the loan. There is a single witness who saw you lend him the money. To contradict the witness and exonerate himself, your friend would have to take an oath that he did not borrow.”

“This makes me think about a case that recently occurred,” Avrumi said. “I wonder what the halacha would be.”

“What was the case?” asked Rabbi Dayan.

“We recently took a class trip to the park to play ball,” said Avrumi. “Afterward, we went to the pizza store for lunch. Most of the class brought money and paid for themselves, but a few didn’t have money and I laid it out for them.”

“OK, so what happened?” asked Rabbi Dayan.

“You can imagine that it was a bit hectic with thirty people all paying at the same time, so I don’t know exactly whom I paid for,” said Avrumi. “My cousin, though, says that he saw me lay out the money for Dov.”

Rabbi Dayan turned to Dov. “What do you say about this, Dov?” he asked.

“I paid by myself; Avrumi did not pay for me,” said Dov. “Furthermore, Avrumi acknowledges that he doesn’t know whom he laid out the money for. He has no right to claim based on what his cousin says.”

“But my cousin is a single witness,” said Avrumi. “Wouldn’t Dov have to swear to contradict my cousin’s testimony?”

“A cousin is a relative who is disqualified from serving as a witness,” said Rabbi Dayan. “Thus, we cannot impose an oath upon his word.” (C.M. 33:2)

“And if it weren’t my cousin, but someone else who is a valid witness?” said Avrumi. “Would Dov then have to take an oath to contradict the single witness, even though I myself don’t know for sure whether he owes me?”

“Generally, a person only needs to take an oath when there is a definite claim against him,” explained Rabbi Dayan. “There are some cases, though, in which our Sages required an oath even on a possible claim.” (C.M. 75:17, 93:1)

“But I’m not claiming Dov might owe me,” argued Avrumi. “I am making a definite claim that he owes me based on the witness! Does that count?”

“There is a dispute among the Rishonim whether the plaintiff must come with a definite claim when a single witness testifies,” answered Rabbi Dayan. “Some say that even when there is a witness, a definite claim by the plaintiff himself is required. However, many maintain that a single witness suffices to impose an oath even if the plaintiff himself is unaware of the facts and claims based on the witness, just as two witnesses obligate the defendant even the plaintiff knows about the debt only based on the testimony.” (See Rosh, Shavuos 6:5)

“What does the Shulchan Aruch rule?” asked Avrumi.

“The Shulchan Aruch rules that a claim based on a witness is considered a definite claim that warrants an oath only if the witness actually testifies before us,” answered Rabbi Dayan. “However, if the witness is not present to testify, but just told the plaintiff what happened, it is considered a doubtful claim that does not warrant an oath.” (C.M. 75:21, 23)

“And what my cousin says is meaningless?” asked Avrumi. “I know him well and trust him completely, so there’s no doubt in my mind!”

“That is insufficient basis to impose a Torah oath,” replied Rabbi Dayan. “However, if you trust him absolutely, some say this is sufficient basis to impose a rabbinic oath, shevuas heses, provided that your relative doesn’t have a vested monetary interest in the case. Others require that he come before the beis din or that there also be some circumstantial evidence against the defendant in order to impose this oath.” (See C.M. 75:23; Shach 75:82-83)

About the Author: Rabbi Meir Orlian is a faculty member of the Business Halacha Institute, headed by HaRav Chaim Kohn, a noted dayan. To receive BHI’s free newsletter, Business Weekly, send an e-mail to subscribe@businesshalacha.com. For questions regarding business halacha issues, or to bring a BHI lecturer to your business or shul, call the confidential hotline at 877-845-8455 or e-mail ask@businesshalacha.com.


If you don't see your comment after publishing it, refresh the page.

Our comments section is intended for meaningful responses and debates in a civilized manner. We ask that you respect the fact that we are a religious Jewish website and avoid inappropriate language at all cost.

If you promote any foreign religions, gods or messiahs, lies about Israel, anti-Semitism, or advocate violence (except against terrorists), your permission to comment may be revoked.

No Responses to “He Told Me!”

Comments are closed.

SocialTwist Tell-a-Friend

Current Top Story
4 yr old Israeli Daniel Tregerman, murdered by Hamas rocket on Aug. 22, 2014.
IDF: Israeli Toddler Murdered by Rocket Fired Near UNRWA School/Shelter
Latest Judaism Stories
Parsha-Perspectives-logo

Eisenhower understood that motivated men will fight much harder and longer than unmotivated men.

PTI-082214

Who does not want to get close to Hashem? Yet, how do we do that?

Weiss-082214-Beloved

Hashem recalls everything – nothing is hidden from His eyes.

Taste-of-Lomdus-logo

According to Rabbi Yishmael one was not permitted to eat such an animal prior to entering Eretz Yisrael, while according to Rabbi Akiva one was permitted to eat animals if he would perform nechirah.

An interview was overheard in which an Arab asked a Hamas commander: “What’s the problem? Why aren’t you hitting your targets? Don’t you know how to aim?” To which he was answered: “We know how to aim very well. We are experts. But their G-d moves the missiles.”

Discretion
‘Vendors Of Fruits And Clothing…May Sell In Private’
(Mo’ed Katan 13b)

Question: The Gemara in Berachot states that the sages authored our prayers. Does that mean we didn’t pray beforehand?

Menachem
Via Email

If a man sins and follows his inclinations, he will find comfort in this world – but when he dies, he will go to a place that is all thorns.

Nothing is more effective to diminish envy than gratitude.

The first prayer of Moshe was Vayechal, where Moshe’s petition was that no matter how bad bnei Yisrael were, the Egyptians were worse.

“We’re leining now, and shouldn’t be talking,” Mr. Silver gently quieted his son. “At the Shabbos table we can discuss it at length.”

If we regard pain and suffering as mere coincidence, we will feel no motivation to examine our lives

Culture is not nature. There are causes in nature, but only in culture are there meanings.

Rabbinic law is pivotal but it’s important to understand which laws are rabbinic and which biblical.

We give slave gifts? If he wants to stay, we pierce his ear?!

More Articles from Rabbi Meir Orlian
Business-Halacha-logo

“We’re leining now, and shouldn’t be talking,” Mr. Silver gently quieted his son. “At the Shabbos table we can discuss it at length.”

Business-Halacha-logo

“Guess what?” Benzion exclaimed when he returned home. “I just won an identical Mishnah Berurah in the avos u’banim raffle.”

“Do I have to repay the loan?” he asked. “Does Yosef have to reimburse me? What if doesn’t have that sum, does he owe me in the future?”

When Yoram got home that evening, he went over to Effy: “My day camp is looking for extra supervision for an overnight trip,” he said. “Would you like to come? They’re paying $250 for the trip.”

“I’ll make you a deal,” he said. “If you pay monthly – it’s $4,500; if you pay six months up front – I’ll give it to you for $4,200.”

“Sound fine,” said Mrs. Schwartz. “In the middle, paint their names, Shoshana and Yehonasan. He spells his name Yehonasan with a hei and is very particular about it!”

“It is sometimes possible through hataras nedarim, nullification of vows,” replied Rabbi Dayan, “but it’s not simple for charity pledges.

Mr. Haber called Rabbi Dayan. “We sold various household items, including my bicycle, the refrigerator and some professional tools with the expectation of being relocated,” he said. “It turns out we’re staying. Can I annul those sales?”

    Latest Poll

    Do you think the FAA ban on US flights to Israel is political?






    View Results

    Loading ... Loading ...

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/judaism/halacha-hashkafa/he-told-me/2013/02/14/

Scan this QR code to visit this page online: