web analytics
May 4, 2015 / 15 Iyar, 5775
At a Glance
Judaism
Sponsored Post


No Landlords (Arachin 29b)


Grunfeld-Raphael-logo

After its conquest by Joshua, the land of Israel was divided into twelve equal parts in accordance with the number of the tribes of Israel. Each male member of each tribe that actually left Egypt was entitled to a piece of land equal in size to the total size allocated to his whole tribe divided by the number of men of twenty or over in his tribe that left Egypt.

This family land was forever to remain the property of the family unit within the tribe and not pass to another tribe. In this way, the children of each family unit within a tribe could look to their father for financial support. The father’s portion of property was the “Family Bank.” It could be drawn upon to support the family. It could also be used to support the sons of the family, their wives and their children when the sons married. The father did not need to worry about his daughters when they married because the “Family Bank” of the husband’s family unit would take care of them.

There were at least two ways in which this divinely mandated distribution of the land could be altered. One was by way of inheritance by a daughter, who in the absence of sons would inherit her father’s estate and then marry a man from another tribe. Upon her death, the land would pass to her husband or her children belonging to another tribe. In order to restrict such diversions, the Torah limits the right of the daughter to inherit the estate of her father to situations where she has no brothers.

The other way in which the distribution of the land could be altered was by way of sale or gift. If total freedom of permanent disposition of land were permitted, it would not take long before the allocation of the land God considered equitable would be reshuffled according to the fortuitous, and not always so equitable laws of economics.

In order to restrict such diversions, the Torah instituted the laws of Jubilee under which land sold in perpetuity or for an unspecified period of time would revert back to its original owner at the Jubilee Year. From Jubilee year to Jubilee, however, land could be freely sold, subject to certain reversionary rights. For the purpose of determining which reversionary rights applied, land in Israel, during the era in which the laws of Jubilee applied, was divided into three categories.

The first category was known as sdeh achuzah, the ancestral field. The term sdeh achuzah refers to a piece of land allocated to its original owners in the time of Joshua, as opposed to any buildings that may have been erected on such land. A sdeh achuzah the owner purported to sell in perpetuity or for an unspecified period of time would revert to its original owner at Jubilee.

Accordingly, any such attempted sale during a Jubilee cycle was not a conveyance of the ownership of the land but a sale of the right to use the land and enjoy its crops. The sales price was calculated on the bases of the value of the crops it yielded each year multiplied by the number of years remaining to the Jubilee year. Thus, if a field that would yield $100,000 worth of crops each year were sold ten years prior to the Jubilee Year, it could not be sold for more than $1,000,000. In addition to the law that a sdeh achuzah sold in perpetuity or for an unspecified period of time would revert to its original owner at the Jubilee Year, the Torah also gave the original owner the right of mandatory redemption of the field to be exercised not earlier than a date commencing two years after the sale.

Thus, in our example, in which the original owner sold the field ten years before the Jubilee Year for $1,000,000, the original owner had an inalienable right, commencing two years from the date of the sale, to demand that the purchaser sell the field back to him for $800,000, that being the original purchase price less the two years during which the purchaser enjoyed the use of the field.

During the two﷓year period following the sale, the purchaser was given an undisturbed right to use the land. If for any reason the purchaser was unable to benefit from the crops of the land – as would be the case if one of the two years were a Shemittah year or, if as a result of weather conditions, there were no crops – then the two years would begin to toll from the time these conditions ceased.

Although the laws of sdeh achuzah only applied when the law of Jubilee applied and therefore do not apply today, they demonstrate the uniqueness of the Torah in moving away from the system of Egypt in which there were no buyback rights to land sold. Raphael Grunfeld’s book, “Ner Eyal on Seder Moed” (distributed by Mesorah) is available at OU.org and your local Jewish bookstore. His new book, “Ner Eyal on Seder Nashim & Nezikin,” will be available shortly.

About the Author: Raphael Grunfeld’s book, “Ner Eyal on Seder Moed” (distributed by Mesorah) is available at OU.org and your local Jewish bookstore. His new book, “Ner Eyal on Seder Nashim & Nezikin,” will be available shortly.


If you don't see your comment after publishing it, refresh the page.

Our comments section is intended for meaningful responses and debates in a civilized manner. We ask that you respect the fact that we are a religious Jewish website and avoid inappropriate language at all cost.

If you promote any foreign religions, gods or messiahs, lies about Israel, anti-Semitism, or advocate violence (except against terrorists), your permission to comment may be revoked.

No Responses to “No Landlords (Arachin 29b)”

Comments are closed.

Current Top Story
A Gaza building, reportedly used by Hamas, destroyed by the IDF on August 26, 2014.
NGO Monitor: Negative Testimony from ‘Breaking the Silence’ Meets Quota for Grant Makers
Latest Judaism Stories
Torat-Hakehillah-logo-NEW

It’s an interesting idea, that love is illustrated by understanding another’s needs.

Niehaus-050115

“Keeping” Shabbos means to guard it and make sure to keep every aspect and detail of it.

Winiarz-Shaya-logo

Pesach is a time when we can grow in this perspective. But merely spending a week working on something will not leave any lasting impression on us.

Business-Halacha-NEW

“There is a diamond necklace that I wear on special occasions,” Mrs. Miller told her husband. “It was recently appraised at $6,000. If need be, we can give that as collateral.”

Morah for a parent is connected to shemiras Shabbos because the Shechina shines on, and through, the Sabbath.

“You shall not hate your brother in your heart; you shall reprove your fellow and do not bear a sin because of him.” – Vayikra 19:17   When the Torah mentions the obligation to rebuke a fellow Jew, it ends with the words “and do not carry a sin because of him.” The Targum translates […]

The Bais Halevi answers that we must properly define what is considered to be “in the middle of a mitzvah.”

They had realized they would be far from civilization and kosher food and had packed plenty of fresh and canned food as well as making sure there was a microwave in their room which they knew how to kasher.

He was deeply saddened by the thought of her going to her final resting place alone and that it appeared as if she knew no one and had no family who cared about her.

Question: If Abraham was commanded to circumcise his descendants on the eighth day, why do Arabs – who claim to descend from Abraham through Yishmael – wait until their children are 13 to circumcise them? I am aware that this is a matter of little consequence to our people. Nevertheless, this inconsistency is one that piques my curiosity.

M. Goldman
(Via E-mail)

The Debt Lives On
‘The Orphans’ Mitzvah To Repay Their Father’s Debts’
(Ketubot 91b)

Rabbi Fohrman asks what’s the connection between animal sacrifices and leaving crops for the poor?

Putting parents before oneself is a step toward putting the more abstract concept of God before self

In her diary, Anne Frank wrote words that provided hope for a humanity faced with suffering.

The Arizal taught this same approach, making the point that the Torah would never mention wicked people and their sins if there was not great depth involved from which we are to learn from.

More Articles from Raphael Grunfeld
Grunfeld-Raphael-logo

In order to be free of the negative consequences of violating a shvu’ah or a neder, the shvu’ah or neder themselves must be annulled.

Grunfeld-Raphael-logo

The omer sacrifice of loose barley flour was more fitting for animal consumption than human consumption and symbolizes the depths to which the Jewish slaves had sunk.

In most communities the rabbi will perform the eruv ceremony on Erev Yom Tov for all community members.

Are you kidding? You know the non‑Jew is not going to consume your chametz. He is not really paying you for it; neither is he taking possession of it.

First, the punishment for eating chametz on Pesach is karet, premature death at the Hand of God.

This process, which is the most powerful form of kashering, is known as libun.

Hapeh is based on the fact that the person who qualifies the statement is the sole source of the unqualified statement and the court has therefore no choice but to believe her.

Moreover, even if the perpetrator of the capital offense is never actually executed, such as when the fatal act was unintentional, Kam Lei applies and the judge cannot award damages.

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/judaism/halacha-hashkafa/no-landlords-arachin-29b/2012/02/08/

Scan this QR code to visit this page online: