web analytics
August 22, 2014 / 26 Av, 5774
Israel at War: Operation Protective Edge
 
 
At a Glance
Judaism
Sponsored Post
Jerusalem Mayor Nir Barkat (L) visits the JewishPress.com booth at The Event. And the Winners of the JewishPress.com Raffle Are…

Congratulations to all the winners of the JewishPress.com raffle at The Event



Second Day Yom Tov, Eruvin And Eggs (Beitzah 4)

Grunfeld-Raphael-NEW

Why two days Yom Tov outside Israel and one day in Israel? The answer to this question depends on the answer to another basic question: How many days constitute a month in the Jewish calendar?

The rebirth of the moon, approximately every thirty days, determines the number of days in the Jewish month. The precise duration of the Jewish month is 29 days, 12 hours and 793/1080 parts of one hour. Because it is impractical to commence Rosh Chodesh in the middle of the day, the most pragmatic thing to do is to alternate the months of the year between 29 days and 30 days, respectively. That is how it is done today. A 30-day month is called “maleh” and is born with a two-day Rosh Chodesh. A twenty nine-day month is called “chaser” and is born with a one-day Rosh Chodesh.

Whether a month is chaser or maleh makes a crucial difference to our Jewish lives. If, for example, one mistakenly believed the month of Elul was maleh when in fact it was chaser, one might find oneself eating on Yom Kippur and fasting on a weekday. If one mistakenly believed the month of Adar was maleh when in fact it was chaser, one might find oneself eating bread on Pesach.

So who decides which month is 29 or 30 days? Today the issue is decided by the Jewish calendar, instituted in 385 CE by Hillel II. Prior to that, during the time of the Second Temple, a chodesh chaser was determined by the empirical evidence of two witnesses, who testified in the Jerusalem court of law, the bit din, that they had seen the new moon on the 30th day. Once their testimony was accepted, the thirtieth day, counted from the previous Rosh Chodesh, was declared the Rosh Chodesh of the new month. If no witnesses came on the 30th day, Rosh Chodesh was declared, by default, on the 31st day, rendering the previous month a chodesh maleh.

At first, the news of a chodesh chaser was spread on the night of the thirtieth by means of torching beacons on mountain peaks. If no torches were lit, all understood that the month was maleh. The Cutheans, however, disrupted this system by torching beacons on days when the Jerusalem bet din had not declared a chodesh chaser. In this situation, the only alternative was to dispatch emissaries to outlying districts in the hope they would arrive with the news of the chodesh chaser before Yom Tov. In the case of Rosh Chodesh Nissan, for example, the emissaries would have 14 days to arrive before Pesach. Those communities, too distant from Jerusalem for the emissaries to arrive before Yom Tov, such as communities in the Diaspora, were forced to hedge their bets and keep Yom Tov for two days. These two days are called Yom Tov Sheni Shel Galuyot. One of those days would genuinely be Yom Tov and one would not. Since at the time they did not know which one was which, they kept both.

That was then. But now we have Hillel’s calendar. There is no doubt. We know which day is Yom Tov. So why are we celebrating “Yom Tov” again on a “weekday”? The comforting yet chilling answer is to be found in Tractate Beitzah. “Hold on to the customs of your ancestors,” the Talmud advises, “for someday, an oppressive government may confiscate your Jewish calendar and forbid you to teach it. Then, having forgotten the methods of your ancestors, you will lose track of the days, and eat bread on Pesach.” And so, even in the darkness of Auschwitz and Soviet prisons, Jews celebrated Yom Tov based on the trustworthy tools of yesteryear.

About the Author: Raphael Grunfeld’s book, “Ner Eyal on Seder Moed” (distributed by Mesorah) is available at OU.org and your local Jewish bookstore. His new book, “Ner Eyal on Seder Nashim & Nezikin,” will be available shortly.


If you don't see your comment after publishing it, refresh the page.

Our comments section is intended for meaningful responses and debates in a civilized manner. We ask that you respect the fact that we are a religious Jewish website and avoid inappropriate language at all cost.

If you promote any foreign religions, gods or messiahs, lies about Israel, anti-Semitism, or advocate violence (except against terrorists), your permission to comment may be revoked.

No Responses to “Second Day Yom Tov, Eruvin And Eggs (Beitzah 4)”

Comments are closed.

SocialTwist Tell-a-Friend

Current Top Story
Obama may not be the best golfer in the world, but he thinks he is smart enough to know who speaks for Islam. expert on Islam.
Obama Decides that ISIS Does not Speak for Islam
Latest Judaism Stories
Weiss-082214-Beloved

Hashem recalls everything – nothing is hidden from His eyes.

Taste-of-Lomdus-logo

According to Rabbi Yishmael one was not permitted to eat such an animal prior to entering Eretz Yisrael, while according to Rabbi Akiva one was permitted to eat animals if he would perform nechirah.

Lessons-Emunah-logo

An interview was overheard in which an Arab asked a Hamas commander: “What’s the problem? Why aren’t you hitting your targets? Don’t you know how to aim?” To which he was answered: “We know how to aim very well. We are experts. But their G-d moves the missiles.”

Daf-Yomi-logo

Discretion
‘Vendors Of Fruits And Clothing…May Sell In Private’
(Mo’ed Katan 13b)

Question: The Gemara in Berachot states that the sages authored our prayers. Does that mean we didn’t pray beforehand?

Menachem
Via Email

If a man sins and follows his inclinations, he will find comfort in this world – but when he dies, he will go to a place that is all thorns.

Nothing is more effective to diminish envy than gratitude.

The first prayer of Moshe was Vayechal, where Moshe’s petition was that no matter how bad bnei Yisrael were, the Egyptians were worse.

“We’re leining now, and shouldn’t be talking,” Mr. Silver gently quieted his son. “At the Shabbos table we can discuss it at length.”

If we regard pain and suffering as mere coincidence, we will feel no motivation to examine our lives

Culture is not nature. There are causes in nature, but only in culture are there meanings.

Rabbinic law is pivotal but it’s important to understand which laws are rabbinic and which biblical.

We give slave gifts? If he wants to stay, we pierce his ear?!

A bit of (non-Jewish) history can help us understand this week’s Torah portion: In the early 1500s, the Catholic church was being fundamentally challenged by movements which claimed it had monopolized religious power and used to enrich the church and its officials. The most radical of these movements were a particular sect of Anabaptists. Anabaptists […]

“When a mother plays with her child there is an acute awareness of the child. But even when the mother works at a job or is distracted by some other activity, there is a natural, latent awareness of her child’s existence.

More Articles from Raphael Grunfeld
Grunfeld-Raphael-NEW

Based on the opinion of the Ramban, the Territorial School believes that leaving any territory of the Land of Israel in the possession of non-Jews is a violation of a biblical mandate.

Grunfeld-Raphael-NEW

To properly fulfill the mitzvah of listening to the megillah, each word must be heard.

If the only person available to perform the milah on the eighth day is a person who is not an observant Jew, the milah should be postponed until a devout mohel is available.

The kohen gadol may not enter the Temple unless his hair is cut every seven days.

A commonly employed and permissible device regarding the prohibition of wearing fresh clothes during the Nine Days is to don them for a moment or two before the Nine Days.

The prayer of Mashiv haruach u’morid hageshem mentions God’s rainmaking powers but it is not an immediate request for rain.

According to the Bach, Rosh Hashanah is referred to as moed, festival, the same term the Torah uses to describe Pesach, Shavuot and Sukkot.

If the survival of Judaism is dependent on the next generation, there is no doubt that the most important person in the synagogue is the Candy Man.

    Latest Poll

    Do you think the FAA ban on US flights to Israel is political?






    View Results

    Loading ... Loading ...

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/judaism/halacha-hashkafa/second-day-yom-tov-eruvin-and-eggs-beitzah-4/2014/03/26/

Scan this QR code to visit this page online: