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Five tragedies occurred on Tisha B’Av. It was decreed that those who left Egypt would not enter the land of Israel, the first and second Temples were destroyed, the city of Betar was captured with thousands massacred, and Turnus Rufus plowed the site of the razed Temple. Consequently, Tisha B’Av was declared a day of national mourning and a fast day.
The fast of Tisha B’Av, like the fast of Yom Kippur, begins at sunset on the night preceding the fast day itself. In order to prepare oneself for the fast, the accepted custom on a weekday is to eat a regular meal without meat and wine before Minchah. Following Minchah, the last meal before the fast, the seudah mafseket, is eaten. This meal, eaten sitting on the floor, consists of bread, water and an egg dipped in ashes (Shulchan Aruch, 552:6, Mishnah Berurah, 16). The seudah mafseket may not be eaten as a family meal but rather as an individual one, each person in his or her own corner with Birkat Hamazon recited by each person for himself without a mezuman (SA, ibid, 552:8).
When Tisha B’Av occurs on Shabbat, the fast is postponed. It begins on Motzaei Shabbat and ends Sunday night. When the fast is postponed to Sunday or when Erev Tisha B’Av occurs on Shabbat, the final meal eaten before the beginning of the fast is the seudah shelishit, the third meal of Shabbat. Since it is still Shabbat, during which mourning is prohibited, none of the restrictions of the seudah mafseket described above apply. Accordingly, one may eat meat, drink wine, sit around the table and recite Birkat Hamazon with a mezuman, and there is no requirement to dip an egg in ashes. The only difference between this seudah shelishit and others eaten during the year is that this one must be terminated before the sun sets and the fast begins.
Because the words of Torah gladden the heart, studying Torah is forbidden when Tisha B’Av is on a weekday, except for passages in Scripture that deal with the destruction of the Temple and other calamities. When Erev Tisha B’Av or Tisha B’Av itself occurs on Shabbat, Torah may be studied, without restriction, on Shabbat morning and, according to many opinions, also on Shabbat afternoon. At Minchah on Shabbat Tisha B’Av or Shabbat Erev Tisha B’Av, the prayer Tzidkotchah is omitted as well as Pirkei Avot.
When Erev Tisha B’Av or Tisha B’Av itself occurs on Shabbat, the prayer V’he Noam is omitted because it was composed for recital at the inauguration of the Temple, whereas Tisha B’Av commemorates the destruction of the Temple. The prayer of Vayitein Lechah is also omitted. Kaddish Shalem is recited without Titkabel.
The procedure with Havdalah is as follows: For those who are fasting, first, the Havdalah blessing, Ata Chonantanu, is recited in the Amidah. Then, before reciting Megillat Eichah, the blessing Borei Me’orei Ha’esh is recited over candlelight but the other blessings usually recited at Havdalah are omitted. Neither wine nor besamim is used on this Motzaei Shabbat. On the evening following the fast, Sunday night, the Havdalah blessing that was omitted on Motzaei Shabbat is recited over wine, but neither flame nor besamim is used. Those who are not required to fast recite Havdalah on Motzaei Shabbat but use a Chamar Medinah beverage (such as tea, coffee or beer).
When Tisha B’Av occurs on a weekday, leather shoes are removed before sunset. When Erev Tisha B’Av or Tisha B’Av occurs on Shabbat, individuals, in order not to display signs of mourning on Shabbat, remove their leather shoes at Ma’ariv after reciting Barchu. The chazzan first recites Baruch Hamavdil bein Kodesh Lechol and then removes them before Barchu.
When Tisha B’Av occurs on a weekday, Tachanun is omitted at Minchah on Erev Tisha B’Av and on Tisha B’Av itself, just as it is not recited on a day of celebration. This is because we believe the Temple will eventually be rebuilt on Tisha B’Av, which will then become a day of celebration.
Raphael Grunfeld’s book, “Ner Eyal on Seder Moed” (distributed by Mesorah) is available at OU.org and your local Jewish bookstore. His new book, “Ner Eyal on Seder Nashim & Nezikin,” will be available shortly.
About the Author: Raphael Grunfeld’s book, “Ner Eyal on Seder Moed” (distributed by Mesorah) is available at OU.org and your local Jewish bookstore. His new book, “Ner Eyal on Seder Nashim & Nezikin,” will be available shortly.
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Leading by example must be visible, regarding where, when and how-like Nachshon entering the Red Sea
Rabbi Yaakov Nagen, a Ram at Yeshivat Otniel, notes that the verse is suggesting that retelling the story of the Exodus is so important that Hashem is performing ever-greater miracles specifically so that parents can tell their stories to future generations.
Before performing the 10th plague God makes a fundamental argument about the ultimate nature of justice.
How is it possible that the clothing was more valuable to them than gold or silver?
Question: If Abraham was commanded to circumcise his descendants on the eighth day, why do Arabs – who claim to descend from Abraham through Yishmael – wait until their children are 13 to circumcise them? I am aware that this is a matter of little consequence to our people. Nevertheless, this inconsistency is one that piques my curiosity.
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Property ownership is an extremely important and fundamental right and principle according to the Torah.
The tenderest description of the husband/wife relationship is “re’im v’ahuvim/loving, kind friends”
And if a person can take steps to perform the mitzvah, he should do so (even if he won’t be held accountable for not performing it due to circumstances beyond his control).
Suddenly, she turns to me and says, “B’emet, I need to thank you, you made me excited to come back to Israel.”
Pesach is called “zikaron,” a Biblical term used describing an object eliciting a certain memory
Recouping $ and assets from Germans and Swiss for their Holocaust actions is rooted in the Exodus
Pharaoh perverted symbols of life (the Nile and midwives) into agents of death.
A more difficult situation arises when there is no evidence placing the missing husband at the site of the death.
When the inability cannot be clearly attributed to either spouse, the halacha is the subject of debate among the Rishonim.
The child of a Jewish mother from a union with a non-Jewish father is not a mamzer.
Although the conversion ceremony involves more than circumcision and immersion, these are the two essential requirements, without which the conversion is ineffective.
If a man dies childless, the Torah commands the deceased’s brother to marry his brother’s widow in a ceremony known as yibum, or to perform a special form of divorce ceremony with her known as chalitzah.
What if, at the moment of the late brother’s death, the surviving brother cannot effect yibum because the widow is a niddah?
Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/judaism/halacha-hashkafa/when-tisha-bav-occurs-on-shabbat-or-sunday/2012/07/26/
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