Join Meir Panim’s campaign to “light up” Chanukah for families in need.
“That day, G-d saved Israel from the hands of the Egyptians … The Israelites saw the great power G-d had displayed against the Egyptians, and the people were in awe of G-d. They believed in G-d and in his servant Moses. Moses and the Israelites then sang this song, saying…”
The Song at the Sea was one of the great epiphanies of history. The sages said that even the humblest of Jews saw at that moment what even the greatest of prophets didn’t. For the first time they broke into collective song – a song we recite every day. There is a fascinating discussion among the sages as to how exactly they sang. On this, there were four opinions. Three appear in the tractate of Sotah (30b):
Our rabbis taught: “On that day Rabbi Akiva expounded: ‘When the Israelites came up from the Red Sea, they wanted to sing a song. How did they sing it? Like an adult who reads the Hallel and they respond after him with the leading word.’ Moses said, ‘I will sing to the Lord, and they responded, I will sing to the Lord.’ Moses said, ‘For He has triumphed gloriously, and they responded, I will sing to the Lord.’ ”
“Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Jose the Galilean, said: ‘It was like a child who reads the Hallel and they repeat after him all that he says.’ Moses said, ‘I will sing to the Lord, and they responded, I will sing to the Lord.’ Moses said, ‘For He has triumphed gloriously, and they responded, for He has triumphed gloriously.’ ”
“Rabbi Nehemiah said: ‘It was like a schoolteacher who recites the Shema in the synagogue. He begins first and they respond after him.’ ”
According to Rabbi Akiva, Moses sang the song phrase by phrase, and after each phrase the people responded, “I will sing to the Lord – their way, as it were, of saying Amen to each line.”
According to Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Jose the Galilean, Moses recited the song phrase by phrase, and they repeated each phrase after he had said it.
According to Rabbi Nehemiah, Moses and the people sang the whole song together. Rashi explains that all the people were seized by divine inspiration and miraculously the same words came into their minds at the same time.
There is a fourth view, found in the Mechilta, Beshalach, parshah 1:
“Eliezer ben Taddai said, ‘Moses began and the Israelites repeated what he had said and then completed the verse.’ Moses began by saying, ‘I will sing to the Lord, for He has triumphed gloriously, and the Israelites repeated what he had said, and then completed the verse with him, saying, I will sing to the Lord, for He has triumphed gloriously, the horse and its rider He hurled into the sea.’ Moses began saying, ‘The Lord is my strength and my song,’ and the Israelites repeated and then completed the verse with him, saying, ‘The Lord is my strength and my song; He has become my salvation.’ Moses began saying, ‘The Lord is a warrior,’ and the Israelites repeated and then completed the verse with him, saying, ‘The Lord is a warrior, Lord is His name.’ ”
Technically, as the Talmud explains, the sages are debating the implication of the (apparently) superfluous words “vayomru leimor – they said, saying,” which they understood to mean “repeating.” What did the Israelites repeat? For Rabbi Akiva it was the first words of the song only, which they repeated as a litany. For Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Jose the Galilean, they repeated the whole song, phrase by phrase. For Rabbi Nehemiah they recited the entire song in unison. For Rabbi Eliezer ben Taddai they repeated the opening phrase of each line, but then completed the whole verse without Moses having to teach it to them.
Thus, we have before us a localized debate on the meaning of a biblical verse. There is, however, a deeper issue at stake. To understand this, we must look at another Talmudic passage, on the face of it unrelated to the passage in Sotah. It appears in the tractate of Kiddushin, and poses a fascinating question. There are various people we are commanded to honor: a parent, a teacher (i.e. a rabbi), the nasi, (religious head of the Jewish community), and a king. May any of these four types renounce the honor that is their due?
About the Author: Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks, former chief rabbi of the British Commonwealth, is the author of many books of Jewish thought, most recently “The Great Partnership: Science, Religion, and the Search for Meaning.”
If you don't see your comment after publishing it, refresh the page.
Comments are closed.
Chazal teach us that we need to be “sur may’rah v’asei tov,”avoid bad and do good.
When we celebrate the completion of learning a section of Torah, we recite the Hadran.
‘The Fetus Is A Limb Of Its Mother’
When the inability cannot be clearly attributed to either spouse, the halacha is the subject of debate among the Rishonim.
Those who reject our beliefs know in their souls Jewish power stems from our faith and our prayers.
He stepped outside, and, to his dismay, the menorah was missing. It had been stolen.
Though we Jews have deep obligations to all people our obligation to our fellow Jew is unique.
In a way that decision was the first in a series of miracles with which Hashem blessed us.
Question: If Abraham was commanded to circumcise his descendants on the eighth day, why do Arabs – who claim to descend from Abraham through Yishmael – wait until their children are 13 to circumcise them? I am aware that this is a matter of little consequence to our people. Nevertheless, this inconsistency is one that piques my curiosity.
Exploring the connection between Pharaoh’s dreams and the story of Joseph being sold into slavery.
Our right to exist and our form of self-government were decided by the ruling parties.
It is clear that Tosafos maintains that only someone who lives in a house must light Chanukah candles.
If Chanukah was simply a commemoration of the miracle of the oil and Menorah, we would be hard pressed to see the connection between the reading from Parshas Nesiim and Chanukah.
Tamar’s conduct bears an uncanny resemblance to Ruth’s; virtuous outsiders at the margins of society
Simply too many cases of prayers being answered to deny it makes a difference to our fate. It does.
When Jacob was chosen, Esau was not rejected; G-d does not reject.
Between Judaism and Islam there can be friendship and mutual respect as Abraham loved both his sons.
God wanted to establish the principle that children are not the property of their parents.
The Babel story is the 2nd in a 4-act drama that’s unmistakably a connecting thread of Bereishit
Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/judaism/jewish-columns/rabbi-lord-jonathan-sacks/children-going-further-than-their-parents/2013/01/23/
Scan this QR code to visit this page online: