This summer marked the 150th anniversary of the battle of Gettysburg. That this battle’s significance still resonates with us is evidenced by the scores of books and articles published in commemoration of the event. Business, political and military leaders from around the world visit the battlefield to learn valuable leadership lessons that they can apply to their particular domains. Some of these lessons guide a leader in what to do, others in what not to do. Although generally honored as one of history’s great military captains, the Confederate commander General Robert E. Lee’s performance during this particular battle serves as a lodestar of what a leader should not do.
Lee did not want to fight an all-out engagement at the little hamlet of Gettysburg. Events, though, conspired against his wishes and by July 1, 1863 his Army of Northern Virginia was committed to this full scale battle. While historians argue as to why Lee was not at his best (for example, some argue he was suffering from various medical ailments), the consensus is that his judgment and resulting decisions were second rate. From the outset of the battle he seems to have been overtaken by events (to employ a contemporary military term) and never fully gained control of the battle dynamic. While always a gambler, Lee generally possessed a sober view of reality and did not fall victim to wishful thinking. He mostly realized the chances he was taking. But at Gettysburg he allowed his preferred view of reality to dictate his moves. Despite receiving cautious and prudent advice from some of his subordinates, especially General Longstreet, Lee continually ordered frontal attacks against the Union lines. This ended in disaster at Pickett’s Charge on the afternoon of July 3, when he lost thousands of soldiers during the assault against the Union center.
Lee has often been depicted as the paragon of the responsible leader following this debacle. As the Confederate stragglers and survivors returned to their step-off point Lee turned to them, realizing that he had erred, and exclaimed, “Our failure is charged to me” (Gettysburg: The Last Invasion, by Allen C. Guelzo, 2013, p.455). Ostensibly, at least his actions here would serve as a positive leadership lesson. Lee demonstrated that a leader must accept full responsibility for his or her actions. However, it seems that even in this regard Lee’s behavior falls short. Lee never fully conceded that his strategy was faulty and with time he began to blame others for the defeat. Lee forever bore a grudge against Jeb Stuart, his cavalry commander who was absent the first two days of the battle. He likewise lamented that, since his best general, Stonewall Jackson, had died prior to Gettysburg, he had to rely on less talented generals who could not forcefully execute his ideas as Jackson had. But most shamefully he eventually blamed his own troops. Professor Guelzo quotes Lee’s suggestion that “more may have been required of them than they were able to perform” (p.457). Guelzo further documents how, after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, he described his soldiers’ “resistance as Feeble” (ibid).
Accepting responsibility is the essence of leadership. Rav Chaim Shmuelevitz posits in his Sichos Mussar that it was Yehuda’s readiness to accept responsibility and admit error that earned him and his descendants the leadership of Bnei Yisrael. As we prepare for the onset of the month of Elul this Shabbat, which begins the repentance process, the importance of admitting mistakes and accepting responsibility take on an additional urgency. Our rabbis teach that the first step of repentance is acknowledging our sins and errors. If we feel that our behavior is on the right track then by definition we will fail to identify our shortcomings. Sadly, then our repentance will never leave the start gate.
Recognizing sin, as this first step is labeled, actually consists of two parts, according to Rav Yosef Albo (Sefer Haikarim 4:26). After quoting a series of Biblical verses that underscore the importance of confessing one’s sins, the Sefer Haikarim discusses several impediments to repentance. The first two are lack of awareness of the sin and self-justification. He compares a sinner to a sick person who, so long as he is ignorant of his illness, will not seek out medical treatment. So, too, a sinner who is unaware of his sinful behavior will not repent. However, mere awareness of sinful behavior is insufficient. A person must also accept responsibility. He must recognize that he is the author of his erroneous ways, and even if circumstances contributed to his errant ways, he is still the one ultimately responsible for his actions and must act accordingly. So long as a person refuses to accept personal responsibility and continues to justify his behavior by blaming others, he will be unable to repent.