web analytics
April 28, 2015 / 9 Iyar, 5775
At a Glance
Judaism
Sponsored Post


Home » Judaism » Parsha »

Shenayim Mikra V’echad Targum


Taste-of-Lomdus-logo

This week we begin reading sefer and parshas Shemos. The parshah begins with the words “v’eileh shemos bnei Yisrael habaim Mitzraimah.”

The Baal Haturim says that the letters of each word in this pasuk serve as roshei teivos for the following halacha: The word v’eileh is spelled vav, aleph, lamed, hay. The vav stands for v’adam, alef for asher, lamed for lomed, hay for haseder. The next word, shemos, is spelled shin, mem, vav, taf. The shin stands for shenayim, mem for mikra, vav for v’echad, taf for targum.

The following word, bnei, is spelled beis, nun, yud. The beis stands for b’kol, nun for na’im, yud for yashir. The following word, Yisrael, is spelled yud, shin, reish, aleph, lamed. The yud stands for yechyeh, shin for shanim, reish for rabos, aleph for aruchim, lamed for l’olam. This means that one who learns the parshah (order), shenayim mikra v’echad targum (twice scripture and once translation) in a pleasant voice will merit longevity.

The Levush (285) derives the same halacha from this pasuk, though slightly differently. He explains that the words v’eileh shemos stand for v’chayav adam likros haparshah, shenayim mikra v’echad targum.

Apparently this pasuk has some connection to the halacha that one must read the parshah twice and targum once.

The Gemara in Berachos 8a and b, which is the source for this halacha, says that one must do shenayim mikra v’echad targum even on the words ataros and divon (Bamidbar 32), which are names and do not have a targum. Rashi learns that the Gemara is telling us that pesukim that do not have a Targum Onkelos must be read three times without any translation. This is because even though there is no targum, the halacha of shenayim mikra v’echad targum still applies. Since these pesukim do not have a targum, they are self-explanatory and one must read the actual pasuk again, which will serve as the targum.

Tosafos there questions Rashi: if the Gemara wanted to choose words that did not have targum, it should have picked words that did not have any targum at all – such as Reuven and Shimon. The words that the Gemara cited do indeed have a Targum Yerushalmi. Therefore Tosafos learns that the Gemara is telling us that regarding words that do not have a Targum Onkelos but do have another targum (such as Targum Yerushalmi), one should read the other targum. Tosafos posits that words that have no targum, such as Reuven and Shimon, do not have the halacha of shenayim mikra v’echad targum applied to them. Tosafos rules that one does not have to read those pesukim three times.

The Tur (Orach Chaim 285) addresses the machlokes between Rashi and Tosafos, regarding whether words such as Reuven and Shimon that have no targum must or must not be read three times. The Tur says that we should be stringent and rule in accordance with Rashi, applying the halacha of shenayim mikra v’echad targum in such a case. Thus we should read the pasuk three times. Perhaps in Rashi’s opinion we can explain why this pasuk alludes to the halacha of shenayim mikra v’echad targum. According to Rashi, since this pasuk states that the Torah will list names whereby there is no targum, the halacha of shenayim mikra v’echad targum nevertheless applies.

There is a machlokes whether one may learn Rashi’s explanation on the Chumash for targum. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 285:2) says that one may learn peirush Rashi for targum, but a God-fearing individual should read targum and Rashi. The Beis Yosef explains that the machlokes is based on the following dispute: those who opine that peirush Rashi may be substituted for targum explain that Rashi adds more explanation to the pesukim than targum generally does. The dissenting opinion posits that only targum may be used, for it was given on Har Sinai.

Acharonim suggest that this is the basis for the machlokes between Rashi and Tosafos regarding words that do not have targum. Rashi holds that even words that do not have a targum still have the halacha of shenayim mikra v’echad targum applied to them. Tosafos disagrees, opining that only if the targum will enhance the translation does the halacha apply.

Rashi seems to believe that only the targum that was given on Har Sinai could be learned for the halacha of shenayim mikra v’echad targum. Tosafos would seem to deem that any peirush that adds to the explanation of the pasuk could be learned. It should result from this that Rashi would opine that one may not learn peirush Rashi on the Chumash for the halacha of shenayim mikra v’echad targum.

About the Author: For questions or comments, e-mail RabbiRFuchs@gmail.com.


If you don't see your comment after publishing it, refresh the page.

Our comments section is intended for meaningful responses and debates in a civilized manner. We ask that you respect the fact that we are a religious Jewish website and avoid inappropriate language at all cost.

If you promote any foreign religions, gods or messiahs, lies about Israel, anti-Semitism, or advocate violence (except against terrorists), your permission to comment may be revoked.

No Responses to “Shenayim Mikra V’echad Targum

Comments are closed.

Current Top Story
UNRWA Rocket Logo
UNRWA Chutzpa
Latest Judaism Stories
“Thou shall not reap all the way to the edges of thy field.”

Putting parents before oneself is a step toward putting the more abstract concept of God before self

Torat-Hakehillah-logo-NEW

In her diary, Anne Frank wrote words that provided hope for a humanity faced with suffering.

Leff-042415

The Arizal taught this same approach, making the point that the Torah would never mention wicked people and their sins if there was not great depth involved from which we are to learn from.

Staum-042415

Humility is not achieved when all is well and life is peachy but rather when times are trying and challenging.

In order to be free of the negative consequences of violating a shvu’ah or a neder, the shvu’ah or neder themselves must be annulled.

“I accept the ruling,” said Mr. Broyer, “but would like to understand the reasoning.”

He feared the people would have a change of heart and support Rechavam.

Ramifications Of A Printers Error
‘The Note Holder’s Burden of Proof’
(Kesubos 83b)

Question: If Abraham was commanded to circumcise his descendants on the eighth day, why do Arabs – who claim to descend from Abraham through Yishmael – wait until their children are 13 to circumcise them? I am aware that this is a matter of little consequence to our people. Nevertheless, this inconsistency is one that piques my curiosity.

M. Goldman
(Via E-mail)

In this case one could reason that by applying halach achar harov we could permit the forbidden bird as well.

“What a way to spend a Sunday afternoon,” my husband remarked. “Well, baruch Hashem we are safe, there was no accident, and I’m sure there is a good reason for everything that happened to us,” I mused.

The answer to this question is based on one of the greatest shortcomings of man – self-limiting beliefs.

Myth that niddah=dirty stopped many women from accepting laws of family purity and must be shattered

In every generation is the challenge to purge the culture of our exile from our minds and our hearts

Rabbi Fohrman connects the metzora purification process with the korban pesach.

More Articles from Rabbi Raphael Fuchs
Taste-of-Lomdus-logo

In this case one could reason that by applying halach achar harov we could permit the forbidden bird as well.

Taste-of-Lomdus-logo

Why would it not be sufficient to simply state lehoros from which we derive that in such a state one may not issue any psak?

The Netziv answered that there is a difference between a piece of bread that was cut already in front of you, and one that was cut from beforehand.

Why is it necessary to invite people to eat from the korban Pesach?

The Ran asks why the Gemara concludes that since we are unsure which two of the four we must recline for, that we must recline for all four.

The Chasam Sofer answers that one of only prohibited from wearing a garment that contains shatnez if he does so while wearing the garment for pleasure purposes.

The Aruch Laner asks: How can Rashi say that the third Beis Hamikdash will descend as fire from heaven when every Jew prays several times a day for the rebuilding of the Beis Hamikdash?

The Ohr Hachayim rules that one may not manipulate the system; rather he must state his opinion as he see the ruling in the case; not as he would like the outcome of the verdict to become.

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/judaism/parsha/shenayim-mikra-vechad-targum/2013/12/20/

Scan this QR code to visit this page online: