The articles in this column are transcriptions and adaptations of shiurim by Rav Joseph Ber Soloveitchik, zt”l. The Rav’s unique perspective on Chumash permeated many of the shiurim and lectures he presented at various venues over a 40 plus year period. His words add an important perspective that makes the Chumash in particular, and our tradition in general, vibrant and relevant to our generation.
Rashi (Vayikra 8:28) comments that Moshe functioned as a kohen gadol during the seven day consecration period for the Mishkan that also consecrated Aharon as kohen gadol, and his children as kohanim. The Gemara (Taanis 11b) inquired what clothes did Moshe wear during this seven day period – bigdei kehunah, priestly garments, or bigdei chol, regular clothes. The Gemara answers that he wore a simple white garment (chaluk lavan). The Rav asked, If Moshe was truly a kohen gadol during this period why didn’t he wear the special clothes that were worn by the kohen gadol? What was the significance of the chaluk lavan?
Chazal tell us that Moshe functioned in many different capacities. For example, at various times he was considered a king and the equivalent of the Sanhedrin. He was also a kohen gadol, as evidenced by his role during this seven day period. One might think that this was a temporary role (hora’as sha’ah) for Moshe, after which time Aharon assumed the role. Chazal, however, tell us that Moshe retained his status as kohen gadol even after the consecration period. (Note: see the Ramban to Vayikra 16:2 who says that Aharon was subject to the restriction of entering the Holy of Holies once a year to perform the Avodah. That limitation did not apply to Moshe.)
If Moshe was a kohen gadol, why did he not undergo the same consecration ceremony as Aharon, appointment (minuy), and anointing with the special oil (shemen hamishcha)? Also, according to the Ramban, the verse “Vayehi veshurun melech” (Devarim 33:5) refers to Moshe’s status as king. Why didn’t bnei Yisrael formally appoint him to the role of king and leader of the Sanhedrin?
These special roles attributed to Moshe have a common theme: they each add a dimension of kedusha to the individual who fills the role. For example, the kohen gadol has a higher level of kedusha than a regular kohen hedyot. Yet both have a higher level of kedusha than a Yisrael. We demonstrate this distinction whenever the kohanim pronounce the blessing of “asher kidshanu bikdushaso shel Aharon,” they are declaring that they have been granted an added dimension of kedusha above and beyond that given to a regular Jew.
We can readily see that a kohen gadol has a higher level of kedusha beyond the other kohanim because the kohen gadol has special mitzvos that apply only to him, to the exclusion of all other kohanim. The status of kohen gadol does more than permit the individual (to the exclusion of all others) to perform the service in the Beis HaMikdash. It imbues the individual with the added kedusha that comes from the extra mitzvos that he now has, that only he can fulfill. This is the kedushas Aharon that the kohanim refer to. Hence the kohen is praising Hashem for giving him a higher level of kedusha. The added dimension of kedusha for a kohen hedyot is immediately evident by observing the four priestly garments he wears that distinguish him from the rest of bnei Yisrael. And the kohen gadol wears eight garments to distinguish him above the other kohanim and bestow upon him and even higher level of kedusha.
The Rav quoted his grandfather, Rav Chaim Soloveichik, saying that even if the appointment of a kohen gadol is rescinded for some reason, the special laws of tumah and restrictions on whom he may marry still apply to him. This special status of the kohen, the kedushas gavra, the personal sanctity, is imparted through either meshicha (anointing with oil), or, when there is no shemen hamishcha, through performing the ritual of the Avodah. The regular kohen hedyot is obligated with additional mitzvos above the rest of bnei Yisrael which raises his level of kedusha. Similarly, the kohen gadol has mitzvos that apply to him above and beyond the other kohanim that confer upon him an even greater level of kedusha.