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When History Was Born


The parshah of Va’eira begins with some fateful words. It would not be too much to say that they changed the course of history because they changed the way people thought about history. In fact, they gave birth to the very idea of history. Listen to the words:

God said to Moses, “I am Hashem. I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob as El Shaddai, but by my name Hashem I did not make Myself fully known to them (Exodus 6:2-3).

What exactly does this mean? As Rashi points out, it does not mean that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and Sarah, Rivka, Rachel and Leah did not know God by the name Hashem. To the contrary, God’s first words to Abraham, “Leave your land, your birthplace and your father’s house,” were said using the name Hashem.

It even says, just a few verses later (Genesis 12:7), “Va’yeira Hashem el Avram – Hashem appeared to Abram” and said, “To your descendants I will give this land.” So God had appeared to Avram as Hashem. And in the very next verse it says that Avram built an altar and “He called on the name of Hashem” (12:8). So Avram himself knew the name and had used it.

Yet it is clear from what God says to Moses that something new is about to happen, a Divine revelation of a kind that had never happened before, something that no one, not even the people closest to God, has yet seen. What was it?

The answer is that through Bereishit, God is the god of creation, the god of nature, the aspect of God we call, with different nuances but the same overall sense, Elokim, or El Shaddai, or even Koneh Shamayim Va’aretz, Creator of heaven and earth.

In a sense, that aspect of God was known to everyone in the ancient world. It’s just that they did not see nature as the work of one God but of many: the god of the sun, the god of the rain, the goddesses of the sea and the earth, the vast pantheon of forces responsible for harvests, fertility, storms, droughts, and so on.

There were profound differences between the gods of polytheism and myth and the One God of Abraham. But they operated, as it were, in the same territory, the same ballpark.

The aspect of God that appears in the days of Moses and the Israelites is radically different, and it’s only because we are so used to the story that we find it hard to see how radical it was.

For the first time in history God was about to get involved in history, not through natural disasters like the Flood, but by direct interaction with the people who shape history. God was about to appear as the force that shapes the destiny of nations. He was about to do something no one had ever heard of before: bring an entire nation from slavery and servitude, persuade them to follow Him into the desert, and eventually to the promised land, and build a new kind of society there – based not on power but on justice, welfare, respect for the dignity of the human person, and on collective responsibility for the rule of law.

God was about to initiate a new kind of drama and a new concept of time. According to many of the world’s greatest historians – Arnaldo Momigliano, Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi, J. H. Plumb, Eric Voegelin, and the anthropologist Mircea Eliade – this was the moment history was born.

Until then, the basic human drama was struggling to maintain order against the ever-present threats of chaos, whether through natural disasters, foreign conquest, or internal power struggles. Success meant maintaining the status quo. In fact religion in the ancient world was intensely conservative. It was about teaching people the inevitability of the status quo. Time was an arena in which nothing fundamentally changed.

And now God appears to Moses and tells him that something utterly new is about to occur, something the patriarchs knew about in theory but had never lived to see in practice: a new nation, a new kind of faith, a new kind of political order, a new type of society. God was about to enter history and set the West on a trajectory that no human beings had ever contemplated before.

Time was no longer going simply to be what Plato beautifully described as the moving image of eternity. It was going to become the stage on which God and humanity would journey together toward the day when all human beings, regardless of class, color, creed or culture, would achieve their full dignity as the image and likeness of God. Religion was about to become not a conservative force but an evolutionary, and even revolutionary, one.

About the Author: Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks, former chief rabbi of the British Commonwealth, is the author of many books of Jewish thought, most recently “The Great Partnership: Science, Religion, and the Search for Meaning.”


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