Many congregations conclude the service with the chanting of Adon Olam.
Following the Seudas Yom Tov we return to the synagogue for Mincha – no reading of the Torah. The text of the Shemoneh Esreh is found in the Machzor, followed by Kaddish Tiskabbel, Aleinu and Kaddish Yasom (Mourner’s Kaddish). Since it is Erev Shabbos, we do not say Avinu Malkenu.
Friday evening: Since this evening is Shabbos, we take care to light candles – from an existing flame – no later than the proper time (7:00 p.m. NYC E.D.T.)
This Sabbath is commonly referred to as Shabbos Shuva, either due to its unique position during the days of repentance between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur, or because of the Haftara “Shuva Yisrael’‘ (Hosea 14:2-10; Joel 2:15-27 – some add Micah 7:18-20), which we read on this Sabbath. Some refer to it as Shabbos Teshuva.
We recite the usual Shabbos prayers with all the textual changes and additions for Aseres Yemei Teshuva (HaMelech Hakadosh replaces HaKel Hakadosh, Zochrenu LeChayyim is added, etc.). Friday night Kabbalas Shabbos, Ashkenaz abbreviate the Tefilla and start from Mizmor Shir L’Yom HaShabbos (Tehillim 92), Sefard also abbreviate, but begin at Mizmor L’David (Tehillim 29) and chant the first two and last two stanzas of L’cha Dodi. There are different customs as regards the recitation of Bameh Madlikin and Kegavana, respectively, most do not say.
It is traditional for the rabbi to deliver a special Shabbos Shuva derasha consisting of Halacha and Aggada matters.
Motza’ei Shabbos: Usual Maariv with all the textual changes and additions for Aseres Yemei Teshuva, we do say Vi’yehi Noam ve’Atah Kadosh. If the sky is clear, we may recite Kiddush Levana, though most have the custom to wait to do so on Motza’ei Yom Kippur.
Sunday is Tzom Gedalia – a public fast instituted by our sages due to the assassination of Gedalia ben Achikam, the Judean governor of Eretz Yisrael appointed by the Babylonians, and its significance in our subsequent dispersal in the Diaspora. Fast begins at 5:06 a.m., N.Y.C., E.D.T.
We rise early for Selichos as on all the Days of Awe. At Shacharis we include all the textual changes as found in our Siddurim and add, in the Reader’s repetition, Anenu as well. We conclude the repetition with Avinu Malkenu, Tachanun and half-Kaddish.
We remove a Torah scroll from the Ark and call three Aliyos. We read “VaYechal Moshe” from Parashas Ki Tissa (Shemos 32:11-14, 34:1-10), the standard Torah reading for all public fast days, and we conclude as usual.
Mincha: we recite Ashrei, the chazzan says half-Kaddish. We take out a Sefer Torah from the Ark and call three Aliyos and again read, as in the morning, “VaYechal Moshe” from Parashas Ki Tissa. The third Aliyah also serves as the Maftir, who reads Dirshu Hashem (Isaiah 55:6-56:8), the usual Haftara for fast days. We conclude as usual with the blessings of the Haftara.
We return the Torah scroll to the Ark and all say the silent Shemoneh Esreh with all textual inclusions as well as Anenu in Shema Kolenu.
In Reader’s repetition, Anenu is said between Go’el and Rophei cholei amo Yisrael. We conclude as usual.
Maariv is usual weekday tefilla with inclusion of all textual changes for Aseres Yemei Teshuva – HaMelech Hakadosh etc.
Fast ends (earliest zman) 7:47 p.m. (N.Y.C. E.D.T.).
During the week between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur we perform the kapparos (atonement) ritual by making a substitute offering to Hashem. This is customarily done with a live chicken, but a live fish may also be used, and one can even give money for charity. The text of the accompanying prayer is found in the Yom Kippur Machzor.
The following chapters of Tehillim are being recited by many congregations and Yeshivos for our brothers and sisters in Eretz Yisrael: Chapters 83, 130, 142. – Y.K.