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September 19, 2014 / 24 Elul, 5774
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Beware the Shi’ite Day of Atonement

What is the cause of the Shi'ite-Sunni conflict?
Ashura was first akin to the Jewish Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur, until it became the commemoration of the beheading of an heir of Mohammed.

Ashura was first akin to the Jewish Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur, until it became the commemoration of the beheading of an heir of Mohammed.

This week, on the tenth of the month of Muharram, the first month of the Hijri calendar, is Ashura, which at first was akin to the Jewish Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur, occurring on a similar date. However, over the years, this day has become a memorial day for Hussein bin Ali, leader of the Shi’ite sect, who was executed by the army of the Sunni regime in southern Iraq in the year 680 CE, 1333 years ago. He was decapitated and his head was ceremoniously brought to Damascus as proof that the deed had been carried out. Caliph Yazid bin Muawiyah placed Hussein’s head on his table and left it there for a month, so that all could see the fate that befalls a rebel and would be deterred from behaving as he did. The fact that Hussein was the grandson of Mohammad the prophet of Islam did not prevent the caliph from treating Hussein’s head in this manner.

What is the cause of the Shi’ite-Sunni conflict? Why the terrible cruelty that has been characteristic of this conflict even until today?

The story begins in the year 632, the moment that Muhammad died. Immediately upon his death the struggle began over who would succeed to the most powerful position in Islam – the office of Caliph, Muhammad’s replacement and the leader of Islam. Ali bin Abi Talib was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, since he was married to Fatima, daughter of Allah’s messenger and his first wife, Hadija. Fatima bore to Ali two sons, Hasan and Hussein, and two daughters – Zainab and Umm Kulthum.

While Muhammad was still alive, his daughter Fatima quarreled with Aisha, Muhammad’s last wife, who was younger than Fatima by several years. After Muhammad’s death, Aisha’s father, Abu Bakr, was appointed as the leader of Islam, which was against Fatima’s wishes, who saw her husband Ali as the natural successor to Muhammad, since he was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, as well as the father of Muhammad’s grandchildren.

There were severe struggles among the group of people that surrounded the first three caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman because of the family feud over who would inherit the leadership. Ali was eventually appointed as the fourth caliph in the year 656 after his predecessor, Uthman, was murdered. Those who opposed Ali, principally members of the Umayyah family, accused him of being involved in the murder of Uthman and during all five years that he ruled, he had to fight his adversaries continually. The governor of Syria, Muawiya, rose up and pronounced himself caliph. His son, Yazid, was the caliph who gave the instructions to murder Hussein bin Ali.

The murder of Hussein occurred in Southern Iraq, near the city of Karbala. He was murdered together with several dozens of his friends and family members, with only one baby surviving to continue the dynasty. The murder, which occurred in 680 – remains the defining event for “Shi’at Ali”, the “sect of Ali”, which is the source of the name “Shi’ite”, the name of the stream of Islam that supports the leadership of Ali’s descendants.

This family conflict has been ongoing for almost 1400 years. Until the year 1258, with the fall of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid dynasty, all of the caliphs of Islam for over six hundred years were from Muhammad’s tribe, the tribe of Quraysh, but they were never the descendants of Ali. This situation placed Shi’a in continual opposition to the ruling regime and they became a harshly persecuted group throughout the history of Islam.

The struggle between the two groups has led to the development of great differences between the two in every area of religious life: religious laws are different, the theology is different, and even the basic scriptures are different: The Shi’ites claim that the Sunnis omitted two chapters from the Qur’an where the leadership was promised to Ali and his descendants, while the Sunnis claim that these two chapters were fabricated by the Shi’ites. The oral law is also different, because each side invented stories about Muhammad to support their political position.

In their prayers, the Shi’ites curse the first three caliphs for stealing the rule from Ali, and they add passages that praise and exalt Ali. Therefore there are many among the Sunnis, especially the Wahhabis of Saudi Arabia, who consider Shi’a as a kind of fundamental heresy. The Saudi regime forbids the Shi’ite minority to recite the call to prayer aloud, because even in the muezzin’s call to prayer there is an extra part praising Ali.

About the Author: Dr. Mordechai Kedar (Ph.D. Bar-Ilan U.) Served for 25 years in IDF Military Intelligence specializing in Arab political discourse, Arab mass media, Islamic groups and the Syrian domestic arena. A lecturer in Arabic at Bar-Ilan U., he is also an expert on Israeli Arabs.


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9 Responses to “Beware the Shi’ite Day of Atonement”

  1. Like everything Allah desires his followers take everything to the extreme.

  2. As begin once said "I wish them both success" may they slaughter each other and leave the Jews and the rest of the world alone!

  3. Kalman Shor says:

    המכה את מדין בסדה מואב

  4. Blood Running Down The Street

  5. Les Le Gear says:

    Wish they'd all beat themselves to death.

  6. Mo Halim says:

    Do Muslims no longer follow the QRN? If they don’t follow the QRN then they are not Muslims. If they do follow the QRN, they should the QRN prohibiting sects.

    “You shall hold fast to the rope of God, all of you, and do not be divided. Recall God’s blessings upon you – you used to be enemies and He reconciled your hearts. By His grace, you became brethren. You were at the brink of a pit of fire, and He saved you therefrom. God thus explains His revelations for you, that you may be guided” [3:103]

    “(Do not fall in idol worship,) like those who divide their religion into sects; each party rejoicing with what they have” [30:32]

    “He decreed for you the same deen He decreed for Noah, and what we inspired to you, and what We decreed for Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: "You shall uphold the deen and do not divide it” It is simply too difficult for the idol worshipers to accept what you advocate. God redeems to Himself whomever He wills; He guides to Himself only those who repent” [42:13]

    Muslims seem to have forsaken the QRN. Muslims seem to have forsaken God. Shame on them.

  7. المسلمون اتباع القرآن ويعتقدون أن محمد رسول من الله . القرآن الكريم هو كتاب لسباق من البلداء و كان محمد شاذ جنسيا لها تتدهور الخالق . الحيوانات البرية من أسوأ نوع !

    Muslims follow the Koran and belive Mohammed was a messenger from God.
    The Koran is a book for a race of morons and Mohammed was its paedophile degenerate creator. A wild animal of the worst kind!

    מוסלמים אחריהקוראןומאמינים שמוחמד היהשליח מאלוהים. הקוראן הוא ספר למרוץ של מטומטמיםומוחמד היה הפדופילמנוון יוצר. בעלי חיים פרועים מהסוג הגרוע ביותר !

  8. Labelling any race of people 'morons' is disturbing. I, like most Jews, have encountered vile anti-Semitism, and am therefore reluctant to return this in kind to any other race of peoples.

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