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Researchers Find Ancient Fabrics in Colors Noted in Jewish Sources

Researchers have revealed three rare 2,000-year-old fabrics that were dyed with an extract and in prestigious colors mentioned in Jewish sources.
One of the  2,000-year-old fabrics discovered near the caves of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

One of the 2,000-year-old fabrics discovered near the caves of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Photo Credit: Clara Amit, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

Centuries-old fabrics identified by Israel Antiquities Authority researchers include one that may have been made by means of a technique similar to making the tekhelet (blue)in tzitzit, the fringes that the Bible commands be worn on four-cornered garments.

To date, only two pieces of fabric treated with actual dye-murex have been found in Israel

The fabrics identified by Dr. Na‘ama Sukenik represent the most prestigious colors in antiquity – indigo, purple and crimson, – that are mentioned in Jewish sources

Thousands of fabrics dating to the Roman period have been discovered in the Judean Desert and regions of the Negev and the Arava. So far only two were colored with dye extracted from the murex snail. Now, within the framework of a study conducted by Dr. Sukenik, three other rare fabrics belonging to pieces of prestigious textiles were exposed that might have been used as clothing in the Roman period.

Dr. Sukenik’s doctoral dissertation was supervised by Professor Zohar Amar and Dr. David Illuz of Bar-Ilan University, and the textiles were examined by Dr. Orit Shamir, Curator of Organic Materials at the Israel Antiquities Authority.

These prestigious textiles, from the Wadi Murabba‘at caves located south of Qumran, were revealed in a study that analyzed the dye of 180 textiles specimens from the Judean Desert caves. Among the many textiles, most of which were dyed using substances derived from plants, were two purple-bordeaux colored textiles – parts of tunics that were double dyed utilizing two of the most expensive materials in antiquity – Murex trunculus (Hexaplex trunculus) and American Cochineal insect .

Photo: Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority

Photo: Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority

A third textile, made of wool, indicating the thread fibers were dyed by exposing them to sunlight or heated after having been dyed, represent another use of the murex snail for achieving a shade of blue, and it is possible that the item in question is an indigo fabric made by means of a technique similar to making the tekhelet (blue)in a tzitzit.

The importance of this fabric is extremely significant as there are practically no parallels for it in the archaeological record.

Dr. Sukenik, assisted by Dr. Alexander Varvak, examined the colors using advanced analytical instrumentation for identifying dye substances (HPLC).

The testing of the fabrics, performed by Dr. Orit Shamir of the Israel Antiquities Authority, revealed that the two purple textiles were spinning in a unique manner characteristic of imported textiles, whereas the blue textile was spinning in the same fashion as the local textiles.

Of all of the dyes that were in use, purple is considered the most prestigious color of the earlier periods, but it seems the public’s fondness for this reached its peak in the Hellenistic-Roman period. The purple dyed fabrics attested to the prestige of the garment and the social status of its owner.

There were times when the masses were forbidden from dressing in purple clothing, which was reserved for only the emperor and his family. These measures only served to increase the popularity of that color, the price of which soared and was equal to that of gold.

It is difficult to know for certain how such prestigious fabrics came to be in the Murabba‘at caves. They might have been part of the property belonging to Jewish refugees from the time of the Bar-Kokhba revolt and demonstrate their economic prosperity prior to the outbreak of the uprising.

Another possibility is that they were part of the possessions of a small Roman unit, which on the basis of the artifacts was stationed in the Murabba‘at caves following the Bar Kokhba revolt.  It is likely these same soldiers brought some of their belongings from overseas to Israel and others they purchased from the local Jewish population during their service in the country.

The three fabrics shed light on the Murabba‘at caves and represent the most prestigious colors in antiquity: indigo, purple and crimson.

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6 Responses to “Researchers Find Ancient Fabrics in Colors Noted in Jewish Sources”

  1. Tangibles provide evidence of Israel's homeland over 2,000 years ago. Why the UN, Palestinians and other world groups cannot/will not connect the dots shows their lack of desire to accept any possibility that Israel actually does own the land.

  2. Perhaps we can get a production of this original and authentic dye so the thread, tekhelet, can once again be seen on our talits! I can not help but note the high quality of the weaving…textiles are indeed wonderful teachers. For myself, I'm done with looking for 'others' to accept Israel, they have murder in their hearts and it can't be displaces…we know who we are and have established our identity and right to live, let those who would do us harm beware!

  3. I always thought it funny that the kosher kosher tzitzit were dyed from the very treif snails!

  4. Wendy I Colbert says:

    The article claims one of the pieces is over dyed with Cochineal which is an American bug. This would not have been available in the time and place posited. Instead I suggest that the bug used to over dye was Lac which would have been available as it comes from India and Asia.

  5. So, are you ready to turn your land over to First Nations?

  6. Ray Mailhot says:

    It does show more legitimacy then the british land of palestine!

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