web analytics
November 26, 2014 / 4 Kislev, 5775
At a Glance
Sections
Sponsored Post
IDC Herzliya Campus A Day on Campus

To mark IDC Herzliya’s 20th anniversary, we spent a day following Prof. Uriel Reichman, IDC’s founder and president, and Jonathan Davis, VP for External Relations, around its delightful campus.



From Phonics To Fluent


Schonfeld-logo1

Parents often come to my office worrying about phonics instruction – occasionally because teachers do not completely explain the mechanics and at times because of myths that permeate the world of education.

Before I go into the effects of phonics on spelling, first let me explain what reading instruction through phonics is. Phonics is the system of relationships between letters and sounds in a language. When a kindergartener learns that the letter D has the sound of /d/ and a second-grader learns that “tion” sounds like /shun/, they are learning phonics.

The National Reading Panel, composed of experts in fields of literacy, was asked by the United States Congress to examine the research on the teaching of reading. The panel found that phonics instruction is essential to beginning reading instruction. They also found that phonics most benefits children who are experiencing difficulty learning to read.

Because written language can be compared to a code, knowing the sounds of letters and letter combinations helps children decode words as they read. Knowing phonics will also help students know which letters to use as they write words.

Children generally learn phonics in kindergarten through second grade. In kindergarten, children usually learn the sounds of the consonant letters (all letters except the vowels a, e, i, o, and u). First- and second-graders typically learn the sounds of all letters, letter combinations, and word parts (such as “ing” and “ed”). They practice reading and spelling words containing those letters and patterns. Second-graders typically review and practice the phonics skills they have learned to make spelling and reading smooth and automatic.

If students do not master the different phonemes, they will be unable to attain fluency, comprehension, higher vocabulary, or appropriate spelling (four essential skills developed in later levels of reading). When the rest of the class moves onto these later skills, your child might be lost if he has not mastered the phonemes appropriate for each grade level.

There are several different types of phonics instruction based on the explicitness by which the phonic elements are taught and practiced in the reading of text. Among those different types of instruction are:

Analogy phonics: This form of phonics instruction includes teaching unfamiliar words by analogy to known words – for instance, recognizing the section “ick” in the word “kick” and applying it to the word “brick.”

Embedded phonics: In this implicit form of instruction, students read texts and learn the phonic skills through words they encounter in the texts.

Phonics through spelling: This method teaches students to segment words into phonemes and select letters for those phonemes.

Synthetic phonics: Perhaps the most common form of phonics instruction, this method teaches students to explicitly convert letters into sounds then blend the sounds to form recognizable words.

One of the myths that accompanies phonics instruction is that it affects spelling later in life. In reality, studies have shown that children who study reading through phonics have significantly better spelling scores than those who study using the whole language approach. When taught in a systematic and consistent way, phonics can greatly improve not only spelling, but comprehension and fluency as well.

Fluency

But, what is fluency and why is it important? The speed with which you read and understand the text is an important indication of your proficiency in a language. Reading fluency is the ability to read text accurately and quickly. Fluency bridges word decoding and comprehension — this set of skills allows readers to rapidly decode text while maintaining a high level of comprehension. Reading fluency encompasses rate of words read per minute and the ability to read with expression.

With fluency, as with most reading skills, practice makes perfect. Once children master phonics, reading books and poems both aloud and to themselves will ensure their fluency increases. One great poem that encourages fluency (and also always makes children laugh) is Janet Wong’s “Noodles:”

Noodles for breakfast,
Noodles for lunch,
Noodles for dinner,
Noodles that crunch,
Noodles to twirl,
Noodles to slurp–
I could eat
Noodles all day! Burp!

Poems are a great way to show children that sometimes words are grouped together in phrases and need not always be decoded separately.

Comprehension

Comprehension or “understanding” is perhaps the trickiest part of teaching students to read in any language. There are multiple levels of comprehension:

Literal: Literal comprehension is what is actually stated such as facts and details and rote memorization. Common questions that illicit this type of thinking are who, what, when, and where.

Interpretive: Interpretive comprehension is what is implied rather than explicitly stated – drawing inferences, tapping into prior knowledge, making educated guesses, and reading between the lines. Common questions that illicit interpretive comprehension are open-ended, thought-provoking questions. For example, why, what if, and how.

Applied: Applied comprehension includes taking what is said (literal) and what is meant (interpretive) and applying it to concepts or ideas beyond the situation. Key skills for applied comprehension include analyzing, synthesizing, and applying to new situations.

Scholastic, a leading educational resource, explains that reading research has demonstrated that readers do not simply “perceive” the meaning that is IN a text. In fact, expert readers co-construct meaning WITH a text. The research base shows that reading is a “transaction” in which the reader brings purposes and life experiences to bear to converse with the text. This meeting of the reader and the text results in the meaning that is comprehension. Comprehension always attends to what is coded or written in the text, but it also depends upon the reader’s background experiences, purposes, feelings, and needs of the moment. That’s why we can read the same book or story twice and it will have very different meanings for us. At various stages in our lives we will interpret the text in a different way.

So, you start with phonics and you build a foundation for fluency and comprehension. Successful reading can come one step at a time.

About the Author: An acclaimed educator and education consultant, Mrs. Rifka Schonfeld has served the Jewish community for close to thirty years. She founded and directs the widely acclaimed educational program, SOS, servicing all grade levels in secular as well as Hebrew studies. A kriah and reading specialist, she has given dynamic workshops and has set up reading labs in many schools. In addition, she offers evaluations G.E.D. preparation,, social skills training and shidduch coaching, focusing on building self-esteem and self-awareness. She can be reached at 718-382-5437 or at rifkaschonfeld@verizon.net. Visit her on the web at rifkaschonfeldsos.com.


If you don't see your comment after publishing it, refresh the page.

Our comments section is intended for meaningful responses and debates in a civilized manner. We ask that you respect the fact that we are a religious Jewish website and avoid inappropriate language at all cost.

If you promote any foreign religions, gods or messiahs, lies about Israel, anti-Semitism, or advocate violence (except against terrorists), your permission to comment may be revoked.

No Responses to “From Phonics To Fluent”

Comments are closed.

SocialTwist Tell-a-Friend

Current Top Story
Lutfu Turkkan, Turkish legislator, introduced legislation into Turkish parliament to label Israel a terrorist state
Turkish Legislator Pens Bill Naming Israel Terrorist State
Latest Sections Stories
Schonfeld-logo1

This core idea of memory is very difficult to fully comprehend; however, it is essential.

Respler-112114

Sometimes the most powerful countermove one can make when a person is screaming is to calmly say that her behavior is not helpful and then continue interacting with the rest of the family while ignoring the enraged person.

LBJ-112114

“Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples shall divide within you.”

Divorce from a vindictive, cruel spouse can be a lifelong nightmare when there are offspring.

There were many French Jews who jumped at the chance to shed their ancient identity and assimilate.

As Rabbi Shemtov stood on the stage and looked out at the attendees, he told them that “Rather than take photos with your cellphones, take a mental photo and keep this Shabbat in your mind and take it with you throughout your life.”

Yeshiva v’Kollel Bais Moshe Chaim will be holding a grand celebration on the occasion of the institution’s 40th anniversary on Sunday evening, December 7. Alumni, students, friends and faculty of the yeshiva, also known as Talmudic University of Florida, will celebrate the achievement and vision of its founders and the spiritual guidance of its educational […]

The yeshiva night accommodates all levels of Jewish education.

Recently, Fort Lauderdale has been the focus of international news, and it has not been about the wonderful weather.

Rabbi Sacks held the position of chief rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth for 22 years until September 2013.

The event included a dvar Torah by student Pesach Bixon, an overview of courses, information about student life and a student panel that answered frequently asked questions from a student perspective.

It is difficult to write about such a holy person, for I fear I will not accurately portray his greatness…

“Grandpa,” I wondered, as the swing began to slow down, “why are there numbers on your arm?”

So the real question is, “How can we, as hosts, make sure our guest beds are comfortable?” Because your guests will never say anything.

More Articles from Rifka Schonfeld
Schonfeld-logo1

This core idea of memory is very difficult to fully comprehend; however, it is essential.

Schonfeld-logo1

Do you love your children? Of course, who doesn’t? Maybe I should rephrase the question: Do your children feel that you love them?

“Without a high school diploma, you couldn’t work as a garbage collector in New York City; you couldn’t join the Air Force. Yet a quarter of our kids still walked out of high school and never came back.”
– Amanda Ridley

Avromi often put other people’s interests before his own: he would not defend people whom he believed were guilty (even if they were willing to pay him a lot of money).

Social disabilities occur at many levels, but experts identify three different areas of learning and behavior that are most common for children who struggle to create lasting social connections.

Brown argues that this wholehearted living must extend into our parenting.

This is an important one in raising a mentsch (and maybe even in marrying off a mentsch! listening skills are on the top of the list when I do shidduch coaching).

Children with dyslexia or dysgraphia frequently have problems in social relationships.

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/sections/family/parenting-our-children/from-phonics-to-fluent/2013/05/09/

Scan this QR code to visit this page online: