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December 4, 2016 / 4 Kislev, 5777

Posts Tagged ‘2000’

Excavation Reveals Spot Where Romans Breached Jerusalem’s Wall 2,000 Years Ago

Thursday, October 20th, 2016

Exciting evidence of the breaching of the third wall that surrounded Jerusalem at the end of the Second Temple period was uncovered last winter in the Russian Compound at the city center. The discovery was made in an archaeological excavation the Israel Antiquities Authority conducted in the location where the new campus of the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design is slated to be built. In the course of the excavation, archaeologists discovered the remains of a tower jutting from the city wall. Opposite the tower’s western facade were scores of ballista and sling stones that the Romans had fired from catapults at the Jewish guards who were stationed at the top of the tower.

Dr. Rina Avner, excavation director on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

Dr. Rina Avner, excavation director on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

According to Dr. Rina Avner and Kfir Arbib, excavation directors on behalf of the IAA, “This is a fascinating testimony of the intensive bombardment by the Roman army, led by Titus, on their way to conquering the city and destroying the Second Temple. The bombardment was intended to attack the sentries guarding the wall and provide cover for the Roman forces so they could approach the wall with battering rams and thereby breach the city’s defenses.”

The historian Josephus, an eyewitness to the war, provided many details about this wall. According to him, the wall was designed to protect the new quarter of the city that had developed outside its boundaries, north of the two existing city walls. This quarter was named Beit Zeita. The building of the Third Wall was begun by King Agrippa I; however, he suspended its construction so as not to incur the wrath of Emperor Claudius and to dispel any doubts regarding his loyalty. The construction of the Third Wall was resumed some two decades later by the defenders of Jerusalem, as part of fortifying the city and the Jewish rebels’ preparations for the Great Revolt against Rome.

A 2,000 year old jar as it was discovered in the field.

A 2,000 year old jar as it was discovered in the field.

Josephus described in detail the route of the wall that began at Hippicus Tower, which is now identified with David’s Citadel. From there the wall continued north to the enormous Psephinus Tower, which defended the northwestern corner of the city wall. At that point the wall turned east and descended toward the Tomb of Queen Helena, which is identified with the place known as the Tombs of the Kings.

A spearhead from the battle against Titus’ army.

A spearhead from the battle against Titus’ army.

It seems that the new discovery has resolved a debate among researchers reaching back to the early twentieth century, as to the location of the third wall and the question of Jerusalem’s boundaries on the eve of the Roman onslaught led by Titus. According to the dig in the Russian Compound, we now have proof of the wall’s existence in that area.

The excavation findings will be presented at a conference entitled “New Studies in the archaeology of Jerusalem and its Region,” Thursday, October 27, at the Mount Scopus campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

JNi.Media

2,000 Pro-Sanders Supporters March as Democratic National Convention Begins

Tuesday, July 26th, 2016

Before the first hour was out at the 2016 Democratic National Convention on Monday afternoon, (July 25) the delegates supporting Senator Bernie Sanders made their views known — strongly — in a protest within minutes of the opening of the event.

Shouts were heard and a full-scale protest was in progress on the floor of the convention hall, along with a counter-protest quickly launched in response by supporters of Hillary Clinton.

Meanwhile, some 2,000 supporters of Senator Bernie Sanders marched towards towards the convention center in Philadelphia, known as the “city of brotherly love.”

The protesters are still angry over the scandal that broke over the weekend after the WikiLeaks watchdog group leaked 22,000 emails written by the leadership of the DNC.

The emails revealed a clear bias by the Democratic National Committee leadership – which was supposed to remain neutral – against Sanders and in favor of Hillary Clinton during the primary elections.

The leak made it clear that the contest had been anything but fair, and in fact had been rigged.

Both Sanders and GOP presidential candidate had maintained for months that the “system was rigged” and when the information was revealed, there were immediate calls for the resignation of DNC chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz.

Ultimately, Wasserman Schultz was forced to resign her position late Sunday night, just hours before the start of the party’s national convention.

Baltimore Mayor Stephanie Rawlings gavelled the start of the convention after a choir sang a long, slow version of the Battle Hymn of the Republic.

However, it appears the resignation did not appease Sanders’ supporters, who still maintain their candidate did not get a fair shake and who are very divided over whether or not to support Hillary Clinton when it comes time to vote in November.

Hana Levi Julian

Historic Visit to Israel by Lebanon’s Courageous Maronite Patriarch

Tuesday, May 27th, 2014

In honor of Pope Francis, the head of Lebanon’s Maronite Catholic Church defied threats to his life this week and came to Israel.

Cardinal Beshara Ra’i is the first Lebanese cleric to arrive in the Jewish State since 1948. Having arrived on Saturday to begin a week-long visit, he joined the pontiff Sunday for the first leg of his two-day tour of the Holy Land in Bethlehem. Much of the weekend, however, he spent traveling around Judea, Samaria and Jerusalem’s Old City and surrounds.

But on Monday he took what critics saw as an irrevocable political step by crossing into “pre-1967″ Israel — arriving at a Maronite community in the ancient port city of Jaffa (Yafo), next to Tel Aviv. There are numerous Lebanese Christians living in Israel, many of whom emigrated in order to stay alive after the IDF withdrew from southern Lebanon in 2000.

Lebanese media called the cleric’s visit a “historic sin,” though he was greeted by Palestinian Authority Chairman Mahmoud Abbas with a medal, the ‘Star of Jerusalem’ for his efforts.

“We came here for the goal of strengthening our belief,” he told journalists when asked why he had taken the risk.

Sources aligned to the Hezbollah terrorist organization warned last week the Cardinal’s visit “cannot not pass quietly,” the Times of Israel reported. Likewise the Lebanese As-Safir quoted unnamed sources who said, “The patriarch’s move puts the Christian existence in the east in danger at a time when their presence is being increasingly targeted in the entire region.”

Christians have long been tormented by various Islamist groups, not only in Lebanon but also in Egypt. They have also been harassed in Palestinian Authority-controlled Bethlehem, where the city’s former Christian majority has now dwindled to a bare ten percent of its current Muslim majority population.

The pro-Hezbollah daily Al-Akhbar ran a fiery op-ed against the visit one week ago, warning, “When Beshara Ra’i travels to ‘Israel’ with the knowledge and consent of the occupation authorities, he creates a dangerous precedent . . . he humanizes the enemy, breaking the taboo and opening the door to all the believers eager to visit the holy sites. When will organized tours begin, guarded by Tzahal (the Israeli army) and hosted by Israeli companies eager to smuggle their products into Lebanon for years?”

The Cardinal responded with an interview in the Lebanese daily An-Nahar, pointing out, “His Holiness the Pope will grace the patriarchate with his visit and it would be inappropriate for us not to welcome him in our lands Jordan and Palestine, which is Israel today. I know full well that Israel is an enemy state which occupies Lebanese land as well, and I respect Lebanese law [banning visits to Israel.] We have no meetings with Israeli officials and I am sorry that some Lebanese wish to create problems where there are none.”

Pope Francis, who began his visit to the region in Amman, pointed out before leaving Jordan that the freedom of worship is an essential human right, and expressed the hope of seeing that upheld throughout the Middle East.

It would appear that only in Israel are members of all three monotheistic faiths assured of their rights to worship.

Senior Maronite Archbishop Paul Sayah added the Cardinal’s visit was purely religious and not linked to the “regrettable situation that exists between Lebanon and Israel.”

Hana Levi Julian

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking-news/historic-visit-to-israel-by-lebanons-courageous-maronite-patriarch/2014/05/27/

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