web analytics
October 1, 2014 / 7 Tishri, 5775
At a Glance

Posts Tagged ‘Avraham Avinu’

Are There Times One May Kill Himself?

Wednesday, October 17th, 2012

Toward the end of this week’s parshah Rashi quotes a Medrash that relates the familiar episode of when Avraham Avinu was thrown into a furnace. Rashi recounts that Avraham’s father, Terach, had reported to Nimrod that his son had broken all of his idols. Avraham was then thrown into a fire and was saved. The wording of the Medrash, however, is that Avraham had gone into the fire by himself (kesheyarad Avraham letoch kivshan ha’eish – when Avraham went into the fire, and in another place it says that Nimrod decreed that he should leireid lekivshan ha’eish – go down into the fire).

Several Acharonim were bothered by this event. First, they ask how Avraham could have thrown himself into a fire. Although avodah zarah is one of the three aveiros for which one must sacrifice his or her life instead of transgressing – in addition, when one is forced to perform any aveirah in public before 10 or more people, the person’s life must be given up instead of committing a transgression – there is nevertheless a dispute among the Rishonim as to whether one may actively kill himself or only allow himself to be killed. Second, the Acharonim ask that since bnei Noach are not commanded in Kiddush Hashem, if a ben Noach is forced to transgress he should do so and not give up his life.

Earlier in the parshah the Torah commanded Noach that although animals may now be killed humans may not be killed. The pasuk says: “v’ach es dimchem lenafshoseichem edrosh – but the blood of your souls I will seek.” Rashi brings the drasha that this is the source in the Torah that one may not kill oneself. The Das Zekeinim Miba’alei Tosafos quote an ambiguous Medrash and offer two interpretations of that Medrash that differ on this point. The Medrash makes a drasha that teaches us whether we should or should not be like Chananya Mishael and Azarya, and whether Shaul Hamelech – who killed himself before he would have been captured – acted correctly, for as the pasuk here says: ach, to exclude. One opinion says that the Medrash teaches us that one may kill oneself or others to prevent avodah zarah. The other opinion says that one may only allow himself to be killed; one may never kill to prevent avodah zarah.

Tosafos continues by saying that in his time there was a decree against the Jews (one of the crusades), and that one rabbi was slaughtering little children in an effort to prevent them from growing up in the church. Another rabbi, angered with this practice, called the first rabbi a murderer and said that if he is correct, the first rabbi will die a strange death. Indeed, the first rabbi was captured and given a strange death. In short order, the decree was abolished.

The Gemara in Avodah Zarah 18a says that when Rabbi Chanina ben Tiradyon was being killed, his students asked him to open his mouth so he would die faster. He responded that he could not do this since that would be considered as if he was killing himself. The Ritvah, on that Gemara and quoting the same Medrash, says that Rabbeinu Tam ruled that one is permitted to take his own life under such circumstances.

Returning to the original question, it is possible that Avraham did not go into the fire himself but rather allowed himself to be thrown into the fire – as seems to be the case from Rashi’s wording. Thus, in that event, the first question is not applicable. But if we understand the events as the Medrash implies, we must then explain the opinion that one may never kill oneself (in this case, that Avraham went into the fire on his own). Additionally, even if we understand that he was thrown into the fire we must still explain that if he had the status of a ben Noach, he should have transgressed and not allowed himself to be killed.

The Maharimt suggests that since Avraham Avinu, as a ben Noach, should have transgressed and not be killed, he acted incorrectly by allowing himself to be killed. He says that it is for this reason that the Medrash says that Avraham was saved in the zechus of Yaakov Avinu.

Rabi Yehudah And Antoninus

Sunday, October 14th, 2012

Rabi Yehudah Hanasi (the prince) known as Rebbe had an amazingly warm friendship with the Roman Caesar, Antoni­nus. The friendship began at the birth of the two men and continued until their dying days.

Rebbe was born as the land of Judea lay beneath the heavy Roman heel. The Roman government, furious at the stubbornness of the Jewish people, passed severe decrees against them. One of these decrees concerned the vital mitzvah of milah (circumcision).

The Jews were horrified to learn that the Romans had decreed that any Jew who cir­cumcised his child would be put to death and were in turmoil. How could one not fulfill the mitzvah that was the sym­bol of the covenant between the Almighty and His people? On the other hand, who had the courage to risk death by defying the decree?

Rabi Shimon Ben Gamliel, descendant of the great Hillel and head of the Sanhedrin, was blessed by G-d just at that time with a son. Great was the rejoicing but equally great was the trepidation.

But Rabi Shimon never hesitated. He took his eight-day old son and performed the ritual that brought him into the covenant of Avraham Avinu.

The Romans Hear

The Roman governor soon learned of Rabi Shimon’s actions. He was furious.

“Bring Rabi Shimon before me imme­diately,” he said.

Rabi Shimon was brought to the palace and before the angry gover­nor.

“What have you done? Why have you defied the orders of the Roman Caesar and circumcised your son?”

Rabbi Shimon looked at the governor and replied: “I have obeyed the orders of a greater king than the Roman Caesar. I have obeyed the decree of the Holy One, Blessed Be He, who is Sovereign of the universe.”

“I realize that you are the leader of the Jewish people and I respect you as a great man” the governor said, “but duty compels me to take you into custody for having broken the Roman law. You, your wife and the newborn child will go under guard to Rome and Caesar himself will decide your fate.”

On To Rome

The trip took many days and when they reached Italy they stopped at a hotel before proceeding on to Rome. The Empress was also staying at the same hotel for the Al-Mighty had decreed that she should give birth about the same time.

The wife of Rabi Shimon, as the leader of the Jews, had met the Empress before and they had become good friends.

“What are you doing here?” the Empress asked in surprise.

Rabi Shimon’s wife burst into tears and poured forth the entire story,

“Because we circumcised our son, Caesar, your husband, will probably con­demn us all to death.”

The Plan

The Roman Empress listened in horror to the tale that had just unfolded and she rose to her feet, “Never! This will never happen!”

“I am afraid it will,” said Rabi Shimon’s wife, sadly, “There is nothing that we can do. We defied the law of tyranny and now we shall be punished for it.”

“No, perhaps not.” said the Empress, as her face brightened,

“What do you mean?”

“I have an idea which just might work if you are willing to try it out.”

“I will do anything if the life of my son will be spared.”

“Very well,” said the Empress. “I have just given birth to a son also. He is not cir­cumcised. Let us exchange babies temporar­ily and when you show the baby to the king he will see that the child is uncircumcised and will let you all go free.”

The Jewish mother listened to the plan and agreed to try it out.

“Perhaps if the Almighty wishes it, the plan will work and we will be saved.”

In the greatest secrecy the two women gathered up their infants and exchanged them. The uncircumcised Roman baby, heir to the Roman kingdom was given to the wife of the Jewish leader and little Yehuda, destined to be one of the giants of Torah, was handed over to the Roman Empress.

Before The Emperor

The next morning the party proceeded on its journey and was taken to the palace to see the Emperor.

“I have heard that you have defied the decree of the Empire and circumcised your child,” the Emperor said. “You realize, of course, that you are liable for the death penalty for treason.”

Wadie Chaverim

Thursday, August 23rd, 2012

Israel’s Negev Desert is majestic. Covering more than half of Israel’s total land area, it is bustling with rugged beauty. With its different formations and colors, its stark physical beauty is outstanding, making it a captivating and enchanting place.

Not far from Sde Boker is a circuit route along Nachel Chaverim that will allow the hiker an easy trek in the Negev – one that will allow you to experience the awe-inspiring splendor of this desert. The twists and turns of Wadie Chaverim will lead to a small, very high hill. (From here the trail turns back.) Even if this hill is not climbed, the calm surrounding desolate area is so serene; magnificent many-colored hills encompass the area, affording breathtaking views. This feels like Eretz Bereishis. The voice of the desert wind is the only sound that can be heard for miles. The endless expanse hasn’t changed since the days when Avraham Avinu walked this desert and pitched his tent here.

Near the beginning of the hike, a Nabatean cistern, Bor Havarim, is found. Although this is an area without much water or rainfall, the Nabateans, using their know-how in water storage, were able to fill cisterns and caves like Bor Havarim with rain water, making them flush with the rest of the landscape

The Nabataeans lived and thrived in the Negev. A mysterious people, whose first recorded appearance was in the year 312 BCE, some ten years after the death of Alexander the Great, it is not impossible that they were present much earlier.

They were still around during the Mishnaic and Byzantine periods. Josephus identified the Nabataeans of his time as descending from the eldest of Yishmael’s twelve sons, Nabioth, who was the father-in-law of Esav (Bereishis, 25:13, 28:9, 36:3), He claimed that the Nabataeans lived in an area that extended from the Euphrates to the Red Sea, and referred to this area as ‘”Nabatene.” He also says that it was the Nabataeans who conferred names on the Arabian nations. (Jewish Antiquities).

The Nabataeans spoke and wrote an early form of Aramaic strongly influenced by Arabic – they used Aramaic heavily in their inscriptions, but their names were in Arabic. This resourceful people established themselves, as a “huge transport company for precious goods,” thus building an impressive civilization based on merchant trade. They controlled the caravan routes from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean, trading in ivory, silk, spices, precious metals, gems, incense, sugar, perfume and medicine. They had control over Indian trade, including cinnamon. Their Perfume Route led from today’s southern Yemen (called “Happy Arabia” in Greek and Latin) to the ancient port of Gaza. Later they also added the silk trade from China.

By establishing caravan way stations, spaced at exactly one day’s camel travel apart, where water, food and other supplies were obtained, the Nabataeans established a network of routes to travel the desert. Some of these caravans eventually developed into the very unusual “cities of the desert,” such as Avdat, Mamshit and Shivta, which reveal a high level of civilization.

While most of us think of the Nabataeans as people who transported goods in the desert by ship of the desert (camels), it has become increasingly evident that the Nabataeans were also a sea-trading people. There are ancient references to the Nabatu tribe, who lived in the Sinai and along the western edges of the Arabian Peninsula. These Nabatu were usually pirates who sailed the Red Sea plundering trading vessels. Later, they set up bases in a number of seaports, including the port city of Aila (modern day Aqaba), which is only some 120 km from present day Petra. After 556 BCE, the Edomites began a gradual migration north, into Jewish lands that had been emptied by Sancherev. The tribes of Arabia also began to move northward. From their port city of Aila, (Aqaba) the Nabatu settled east of the Syro-African rift between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea, that is, in the land that had once been Edom. Petra, located deep in the Sandstone Mountains of southern Jordan, became their capital. Some say it is none other then the famous clefts of the rock mentioned by the prophet Ovadiah.

It seems that some Edomites remained behind. Those that emigrated into Judeah became known as “Idumaeans.” These were some of the people who opposed the rebuilding of Bayit Sheini and the rebuilding of the city walls of Jerusalem by Ezra and Nechemiah. Yochanan Hyrcanus converted some Idumaeans to Judaism. Herod the Great (born about 73 or 74 BCE, died about 4 BCE) had Edomite genes from his father’s (Antipater) side and Nabatean from his mother’s (Cypros).

Yidativ

Sunday, July 22nd, 2012

I blinked groggily as I headed towards the kitchen sink. Avi bounced over, a huge smile lighting up his mouth, eyes, and face. He was happy, delighted, through and through.

“I’m giving Chanala breakfast!” he told me joyously. “She chose a pattern herself, of different cereals, and I’m giving it to her. Look!” He showed me the bowl. “First I give her Cocoa Pebbles. Then I give her some mini cookies. Then I give her some Rice Krispies. Then I give her some Cheerios. And then I give her some soymilk.” I glanced at the almost-empty cup with a straw, and at the container of soymilk for his allergenic sister.

“So, Avi, it’s your job to give Chanala breakfast today?” I asked with a smile. His joy was certainly irresistible.

“Yes!” he exclaimed happily. “Here, Chanala, want some cereal?” He ran over to the baby, his hand cupped, and offered it to her. She took one Cheerio with her tiny hand.

I still had to understand this. “What do you mean, Avi, that she chose this pattern?”

Avi readily explained. “My mother told me that she only eats a little of one cereal and then you have to give her a different kind and she eats that. So I got a whole bunch of kinds, and I saw what she wanted. First she took some Cocoa Pebbles. Then I saw that she took some mini cookies. Then she took some Rice Krispies. And then she took some toasted Cheerios! So she chose the pattern, and I saw, this is a pattern that she likes, so I’m doing it again and again, just like she chose!” His megawatt smile and vibrant black eyes beamed across the kitchen.

“Now we have to give her a drink,” Avi explained. He carefully poured about two ounces of soymilk into the cup, repositioned the straw, and picked it up. “Come, Chanala,” he called. “Want a drink?”

I heard him following her up the steps that she had climbed.

Esti joined me in the kitchen. “Chanala stopped climbing the steps,” she informed me. “She found a good place to sit down and drink.”

“Or maybe,” I responded with a smile, “she stopped because she has such a good brother, and he sat down with her right there and gave her to drink.”

I heard Avi running back to the table, grabbing his bowl of many choices in case the baby wanted just a bit more.

He would not rest until he was sure she was happy.

I see Avraham Avinu, running to shecht three cows in order to give his three guests three tongues – the finest meat.

I see Avi, holding the bowl with four types of cereal in his hand.

Avi, I’m sure you are making him proud.

*****

Now, what is that title all about? Five points extra credit to anyone who can figure it out!

Avi stood on the stairs, halfway up to bed, holding the paper in his hand.

“I liked the story,” he said, his face crinkling into that special Avi-smile. Avi’s smile is an earthquake; it splits his face, shines on his rosy cheeks and dances through his black, lively eyes.

“But,” he said, looking disturbed, “that wasn’t the order. It was first Cocoa Pebbles, and the soymilk was last.” I nodded seriously, took the paper from his hand, and penned the necessary corrections. “Thank you so much, Avi.”

“And also… I don’t understand the title.”

I smiled from my position under the railing, and leaned against the wooden slats. “Don’t worry,” I assured him, “I knew you wouldn’t get it. It was sort of a riddle, and I thought that only older kids might get it.”

“So what does it mean?” Avi’s face looked up at me, the black eyes pure innocence awaiting enlightenment. That is the sort of face that makes the heart of a teacher beat fast.

Yidativ is a word from a pasuk,” I explained. “Hashem said about someone in the Torah. It means, ‘I loved him.’ I beamed at Avi with I-have-a-secret eyes. “Can you guess who it was?”

Avi met my gaze with wondering eyes. He got it. “…Avraham…?”

“You got it!” my eyebrows rose in delight. “So… Hashem said about Avraham, ‘yidativ’- Rashi says that means -‘ I love him.’ But you know what the word really means?” I paused for a moment of suspense.

The Negev

Monday, June 18th, 2012

When contemplating the Negev, one must set aside any preconcieved notion of what a desert is. In Eretz Yisrael there are no rolling yellow sand dunes in softly rising and falling landscapes as unbroken as the sea. Far from being a simple expanse of sand, the Negev is marked by a mélange of cliffs, crags, boulders and dry river vadies. Where the Judean Desert ends, the Negev begins, an impressive region of low sandstone hills, rocky peaks (for example the high plateau area of Ramat HaNegev- The Negev Heights – stands between 370 meters and 520 meters), and plains rutted with narrow canyons. The Negev Desert is mesmerizing, beautiful and rich in geological history.

Photos by Rhimonah Traub

The Negev is mentioned a number of times in Parshas Lech Lecha showing us how Avraham Avinu paced the land, making it the property of Am Yisroel forever.

The essence of Avraham was chesed; a need to give permeated his whole being. After the cities of the Plain were overturned, the wayfarers who visited his home in Chevron were few and far between. Since business was slow for hachnassas orchim, he moved to a spot along a trade route in the Negev. The places he chose to live were dry – physically and spiritually. People living there were hesitant to do good deeds or to help others. (Literally, the word “Negev” means dry). He deliberately chose such a place because he wanted to teach the inhabitants to be charitable, and he saw there was a lot of potential in that area.

Negbah is also used for the direction “south.” Avraham Avinu moved south because he was worried that the embarrassing episode of Lot and his two daughters would reflect badly upon himself. Lot was the spitting image of Avraham, and he feared that people might mistake him for his nephew Lot.

When Moshe sent the spies to tour the land, he told them to head from the Negev towards Chevron (Bamidbar 13:17). He intended for them to see the worst part of the land first so they would be able to appreciate the greatness of what they were being given. Yehoshua conquered the whole of the Negev (Yehoshua 11:16). The northern Negev belongs to Yehuda and the south to Shimon. Dovid HaMelech firmly established Israelite rule over the desert. His son Shlomo subsequently built a string of fortresses along its roads.

The rise of the Nabateans began around the fourth century B.C.E. The Negev became the heart of the Nabatean Empire and Spice Route.

After the Roman takeover, Nabatean control gradually weakened. Fewer camel caravans passed through the area and other roads supplanted the Spice Route.

Unlike most areas in the country, the Romans neglected the Negev not doing much to develop it. During the Byzantine Era, Christians began to build churches and study centers in the area. Agricultural-based cities were established and the population grew. After the Muslim conquest in the seventh century settlement of the Negev came to an end. As the new rulers had little interest in the area, the residents were expelled.

For centuries after, only Bedouins lived in the Negev. An Arabic history of tribes around Beersheba, published in 1934, records 23 different tribal groups. In 1918 the English mandate period began and the region enjoyed rapid growth and was called “Beersheba sub-district.” The British built a number of highways; firstly from Beersheba to Um Rash-Rash (Eilat), then from Beersheba to the large Machtesh and also the “Petroleum Road” that goes from Yerucham to Avdat and to Machtesh Ramon.

The British White Paper of 1939 and the 1940 Land Transfer Regulations placed a number of restrictions on Jewish settlement and land purchase in Palestine. The Negev was one of the areas where both were forbidden. With the onset of World War II, the Yishuv looked to expand its areas of settlement in order to house Jewish refugees from Europe. Land was purchased in the Negev by the JNF, though Arabs agents to circumvent the British ban. Three lookouts, Revivim, Gvulot and Beit Eshel were settled in 1943. These later served as a springboard for further Jewish population of the Negev.

Luckily, Avraham Wasn’t a Complainer

Tuesday, May 15th, 2012

A lot of people are complainers. They love to complain. Often, you can spot them in restaurants making a lot of noise. They don’t come to eat. They come to complain. They drive the waiters crazy. First, the steak is too well done. Then it’s too rare. Then they complain that the air conditioner is freezing them to death, and when the waiter sets them up at a new table, there’s so much cigarette smoke in that section, they can’t even breathe.

A lot of people are the same way when it comes to Israel. They’re complainers. They complain about everything in order to justify why they don’t come to live here. I’m not talking about people who have legitimate reasons for not coming, but about the complainers who could come but don’t.

Thankfully, our forefather, Avraham Avinu, wasn’t a complainer. Just imagine what would have been! Jewish history would have been totally different!

AVRAHAM! GET THEE FORTH TO THE LAND THAT I WILL SHOW YOU!’

Which Land is that?”

THE LAND THAT I WILL SHOW YOU.”

I’m not going anywhere till I know where it is.”

DO YOU KNOW WHO YOU’RE TALKING TO?”

Of course I know.”

THEN GET GOING!”

Not until I know.”

TO THE LAND OF CANAAN.”

The Land of Canaan? You’ve got to be joking!”

AM I A JOKER IN YOUR EYES?”

Well, no, of course not. But the Land of Canaan? It’s loaded with mosquitoes!”

MOSQUITOES?”

And swamps!”

YOU’LL DRAIN THE SWAMPS.”

Me?”

YES, AVRAHAM, YOU.”

But there are hookers in Tel Aviv.”

GET THEE FORTH TO THE LAND!”

What about Eilat? It’s loaded with immodest women and preetzut!”

GET THEE FORTH TO THE LAND!”

The apartments don’t have built-in closets.”

GET THEE FORTH TO THE LAND!”

The taxes are murder! That is, if you can even find a job!”

AVRAHAM!”

And the government is trafe! The secular run everything!”

I’M WARNING YOU!”

What about all the missionaries? You want me to be in a place crawling with missionaries?”

AVRAHAM, GET THEE FORTH TO THE LAND!”

But the Canaanites blow up women and children in buses!”

GET THEE FORTH TO THE LAND!”

Face it. You need me here to spread the Torah.”

GET THEE FORTH TO THE LAND!”

GET THEE FORTH TO THE LAND!”

GET THEE FORTH TO THE LAND!”

To get to the point, the real Avraham Avinu packed up his belongings without saying a word and hastened to the Land, even though it was loaded with savage heathens, prostitutes, idol worship, murderers, and rapists, even though there wasn’t one synagogue, kosher butcher, or luxury villa to be found.

Avraham came to Israel without complaining.

As it says, “Avraham believed in Hashem.”

Shidduch Challenges: Nothing Has Changed

Thursday, February 2nd, 2012

We have myriad matchmaking programs all over the world, from word of mouth to computerized, from well-intentioned individuals and professional shadchanim to singles organizations. And yet relatively few inroads have been made; the ever-growing singles population remains a daunting challenge.

We attribute it to this or that reason, all of them valid, and in forthcoming articles, B’ezras Hashem, I shall examine some of them, but for now I would like to make it clear that finding the right shidduch has always been difficult.

My husband, of blessed memory, related to me that prior to the Holocaust his father, the revered sage HaRav HaGaon HaTzaddik Osher Anshil HaLevi Jungreis, zt”l, tried to make a shidduch for his daughter, my husband’s older sister. She was stunningly beautiful, bright, talented, and blessed with exemplary middos. Her chesed was of legendary proportions, but despite all these attributes there were terrible difficulties in making a shidduch for her.

The reason was simple enough – a prerequisite for a good shidduch in those days was for the girl’s family to offer a substantial dowry. As a rabbi struggling with a meager salary, my father-in-law had all to do just to support his family and could not offer the dowry that parents of outstanding boys were seeking for their sons.

Having no option, my revered father-in-law approached various members of his congregation, explained his predicament and asked for a raise in salary. They were all sympathetic and understanding of their beloved rabbi’s situation. The long-awaited night of the congregational meeting arrived – and, incredibly, the request was voted down.

You can imagine the terrible disappointment. Trying to understand what could possibly have gone wrong, my husband’s older brother, HaRav HaGaon Moshe Nossen Notte, Hy”d, quipped, “It’s like bassar v’cholov [meat and milk]: separately, they’re kosher, but when you combine then, they become treif!”

And so it was that my beautiful sister-in-law was taken to Auschwitz without having known the joy of going under the chuppah.

Why do I relate this painfully sad story? The answer should be obvious. Every generation has its own daunting shidduch challenges. Unfortunately, finding the right shidduch is not a new phenomenon, nor is it limited to our contemporary world. We, the Jewish people, have always been keenly aware of the overwhelming difficulty inherent in this search. No sooner is a child born than we bless the new arrival with an amazing berachah: “L’Torah, l’chuppah, l’ma’asim tovim – May this child live a life of Torah, go under the chuppah and be an embodiment of good deeds.”

Once, as this blessing was being pronounced at a bris, I happened to overhear a young women laughingly say to her friend, “We Jews are something else. The poor kid just came into this world and we are already worried about his shidduch!”

“Forgive me,” I said to her, “but I couldn’t help but overhear your conversation. You are quite correct. From the very moment of birth we beseech the Almighty to guide our child to his designated soul mate, for that is the most daunting challenge to humankind – a challenge so awesome it can make or break a man and leave indelible marks on future generations.

“So it is that even as we wish mazel tov, we understand the wish must go with a prayer that G-d grant the parent the merit of seeing that child under the chuppah. It is a gift no Jewish parent takes for granted. The Torah itself testifies to this by relating in great detail the efforts of Avraham Avinu when he sought a wife for his son Yitzchok. Indeed, one might wonder why the Torah, the holiest of Books, in which G-d proclaims His Divine commandments, would dwell on a parent’s shidduch search, But the question itself is the answer, for the very fact that Hashem devotes an entire parshah to it testifies to its importance. There can be no greater priority for Jewish parents.”

Tragically, in our society parents have little if anything to say. Very often mothers or fathers quietly consult me to see if I can do something for their children, and they invariably add that their children are not to know.

Just consider this for a moment. I, a non-family member, can ask or recommend, but a mother or father has to remain silent. This is the culture we’ve created.

Our father Avraham was the wealthiest, most prominent man in his generation. He had vast holdings – real estate, livestock, servants, etc. The shidduch parshah opens (Bereishis 24:1) with the Torah relating that Avraham was on in years and had made his last will and testament. He called in the loyal executor of his estate, Eliezer, and charged him with the responsibility of carrying out his will. Amazingly, nothing was said of his material possessions. Avraham made only one demand of Eliezer: that he find a shidduch for Yitzchok in accordance with his specifications.

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/judaism/rebbetzins-viewpointrebbetzin-jungreis/shidduch-challenges-nothing-has-changed-2/2012/02/02/

Scan this QR code to visit this page online: