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September 16, 2014 / 21 Elul, 5774
At a Glance

Posts Tagged ‘Eretz Yisroel’

Getting The Big Picture

Wednesday, July 23rd, 2008

        Rabbi Horowitz’s recently released parenting book, Living and Parenting(ArtScroll), can be obtained by visiting www.rabbihorowitz.com, e-mailing udi528@aol.com, calling 845-352-7100 x 133, or visiting your local Judaica store.

 

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As Bnei Yisroel passed through the land of Ya’azer and Gilad in the “Ever HaYarden” (land East of the Jordan River) they noticed that the land was very fertile and quite suitable for grazing animals.
 
The two shevatim (tribes) of Reuven and Gad, who had large flocks of cattle, spoke to Moshe and expressed their desire to settle in Ever HaYarden – even though it was not part of Eretz Yisroel proper.
 
Having led his people through the desert for 40 years with the hope of reaching the holy soil of Eretz Yisroel, Moshe was understandably disappointed that two shevatim relinquished their portion in the Promised Land in exchange for a parcel in Ever HaYarden.
 

Harsh Words

 

Moshe expressed himself rather sharply to the leaders of Reuven and Gad. He asked them why they would weaken the spirit of their brothers by not accompanying them to Eretz Yisroel and going to battle alongside the members of the other Tribes.
 
Moshe reminded them of the terrible damage done by the demoralizing report of the meraglim (spies). He wondered why these two shevatim would risk incurring the wrath of Hashem by demonstrating their willingness to forgo the privileged of entering Eretz Yisroel – a zechus denied to Moshe himself.
 

An Additional Rebuke

 

Moshe also gave them tochachah for their lack of proper priorities. When speaking to Moshe, they stated that they had every intention of supporting the war efforts of the remainder of Klal Yisroel. “We will build pens for our flocks of cattle and cities for our children (Bamidbar 32:16).
 
Moshe admonished them for placing their possessions before their children. He implied that their priorities were misplaced, perhaps as a result of their intense focus on the needs of their flocks.
 
The people of Reuven and Gad accepted Moshe’s rebuke, and recalibrated their priorities. In fact, the next time they discussed their arrangements with Moshe (Bamidbar 32:26), they listed their children and wives before their cattle.
 

An Interesting Observation

 

The Ohr HaChaim notes that the leaders of the shevatim expressed their acceptance of Moshe’s rebuke using two different terms. They said that they would do ” as Moshe instructed us” (Bamidbar 32:25). Two pesukim later, they said that they would join Bnei Yisroel in battle, ” as my master has spoken.”
 
The Ohr HaChaim offers a lengthy explanation as to the reason for the two distinct terms that the people of Reuven and Gad used (see Ohr HaChaim, Bamidbar 32:25 for the full text).
 

A Deeper Level

 

I would like to suggest an additional thought as to the usage of these two terms.

Advice and guidance can be adhered to on two very different levels. The first is to follow what we were instructed to the letter of the law. A much deeper commitment is to truly get the “big picture” of what we are being told. When that happens, we don’t merely do what we are told. We internalize the lessons and change our view of things as a result of the wisdom we attained by listening to the constructive criticism that we were given.
 
The Bnei Reuven and Gad realized that their moral compass became skewed as a result of their newly acquired wealth. They were struck by the fact that they inadvertently mentioned their possessions before their children. Once they internalized the criticism of Moshe, they informed him that they were willing to improve and change the course of their lives.
 
“We will do what you instructed us,” they told Moshe. Much more importantly, they accepted the full meaning and import of their rebbi’s words – and the course of their lives.
 

Best wishes for a Gutten Shabbos.

 

Rabbi Yakov Horowitz is the founder and dean of Yeshiva Darchei Noam of Monsey, and the founder and director of Project Y.E.S.
 

To purchase Rabbi Horowitz’s Dvar Torah Sefer, Growing With the Parshaor his popular parenting tapes and CD’s – including his 4-CD set “What Matters Most” – please visit www.rabbihorowitz.com, email udi528@aol.com, or call 845-352-7100 x 133.

Getting The Big Picture

Wednesday, July 23rd, 2008

Rabbi Horowitz’s recently released parenting book, Living and Parenting (ArtScroll), can be obtained by visiting www.rabbihorowitz.com, e-mailing udi528@aol.com, calling 845-352-7100 x 133, or visiting your local Judaica store.

* * * * * * * * * *

As Bnei Yisroel passed through the land of Ya’azer and Gilad in the “Ever HaYarden” (land East of the Jordan River) they noticed that the land was very fertile and quite suitable for grazing animals.

The two shevatim (tribes) of Reuven and Gad, who had large flocks of cattle, spoke to Moshe and expressed their desire to settle in Ever HaYarden – even though it was not part of Eretz Yisroel proper.

Having led his people through the desert for 40 years with the hope of reaching the holy soil of Eretz Yisroel, Moshe was understandably disappointed that two shevatim relinquished their portion in the Promised Land in exchange for a parcel in Ever HaYarden.

Harsh Words

Moshe expressed himself rather sharply to the leaders of Reuven and Gad. He asked them why they would weaken the spirit of their brothers by not accompanying them to Eretz Yisroel and going to battle alongside the members of the other Tribes.

Moshe reminded them of the terrible damage done by the demoralizing report of the meraglim (spies). He wondered why these two shevatim would risk incurring the wrath of Hashem by demonstrating their willingness to forgo the privileged of entering Eretz Yisroel – a zechus denied to Moshe himself.

An Additional Rebuke

Moshe also gave them tochachah for their lack of proper priorities. When speaking to Moshe, they stated that they had every intention of supporting the war efforts of the remainder of Klal Yisroel. “We will build pens for our flocks of cattle and cities for our children (Bamidbar 32:16).

Moshe admonished them for placing their possessions before their children. He implied that their priorities were misplaced, perhaps as a result of their intense focus on the needs of their flocks.

The people of Reuven and Gad accepted Moshe’s rebuke, and recalibrated their priorities. In fact, the next time they discussed their arrangements with Moshe (Bamidbar 32:26), they listed their children and wives before their cattle.

An Interesting Observation

The Ohr HaChaim notes that the leaders of the shevatim expressed their acceptance of Moshe’s rebuke using two different terms. They said that they would do ” as Moshe instructed us” (Bamidbar 32:25). Two pesukim later, they said that they would join Bnei Yisroel in battle, ” as my master has spoken.”

The Ohr HaChaim offers a lengthy explanation as to the reason for the two distinct terms that the people of Reuven and Gad used (see Ohr HaChaim, Bamidbar 32:25 for the full text).

A Deeper Level

I would like to suggest an additional thought as to the usage of these two terms.

Advice and guidance can be adhered to on two very different levels. The first is to follow what we were instructed to the letter of the law. A much deeper commitment is to truly get the “big picture” of what we are being told. When that happens, we don’t merely do what we are told. We internalize the lessons and change our view of things as a result of the wisdom we attained by listening to the constructive criticism that we were given.

The Bnei Reuven and Gad realized that their moral compass became skewed as a result of their newly acquired wealth. They were struck by the fact that they inadvertently mentioned their possessions before their children. Once they internalized the criticism of Moshe, they informed him that they were willing to improve and change the course of their lives.

“We will do what you instructed us,” they told Moshe. Much more importantly, they accepted the full meaning and import of their rebbi’s words – and the course of their lives.

Best wishes for a Gutten Shabbos.

Rabbi Yakov Horowitz is the founder and dean of Yeshiva Darchei Noam of Monsey, and the founder and director of Project Y.E.S.

To purchase Rabbi Horowitz’s Dvar Torah Sefer, Growing With the Parsha or his popular parenting tapes and CD’s – including his 4-CD set “What Matters Most” – please visit www.rabbihorowitz.com, email udi528@aol.com, or call 845-352-7100 x 133.

Strength of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai

Wednesday, July 9th, 2008

In mid-December, I traveled to Eretz Yisroel with my wife, Chanie, for a twofold purpose. Firstly, I wanted to visit my two children who are learning in yeshivos there. Secondly, in light of the fact that I had assumed the position of executive director of Yeshiva Torah Vodaath, I wanted to solicit as many brochos from gedolim as possible, and to pray at kivrei tzaddikim (graves of righteous people).

We arrived in Eretz Yisroel on Tuesday evening, and stayed overnight at my uncle’s home in Ra’anana. On Wednesday morning, which was the fast of Asoro b’Teves, I began the day by immersing in a mikvah, and davening in the Lechu Neranenu shul. My family then visited my grandmother’s grave at the Ra’anana cemetery.

The next step was to begin our trip up north for a day of tefillah. We reached Miron in the early afternoon, and davened and recited Tehillim at the kever of the holy tzaddik, Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai.

Following an uplifting hour or so in Miron, we proceeded to Amuka, the burial place of R’ Yonason ben Uziel. Tradition has it that those who make the trip to his kever will be helped, especially those in need of shidduchim. We prayed both for the singles in our family and for many others whose names we carried with us.

Our next stop was the holy city of Tzfas. Many great people are buried in the ancient cemetery there. Since we are Kohanim, my son and I were not able to enter the cemetery, but my wife and daughter spent close to an hour at the various gravesites. By this time, it was starting to get dark, and I was trying to calculate what time Maariv would take place.

We have a niece studying in a seminary in Tzfas, and I figured that we would be able to reach her seminary and still be in time to daven Maariv in her neighborhood. We began driving there, and soon became hopelessly lost. We asked directions and made phone calls, but without success.

Suddenly, we saw a group of men on the street coming from shul. They told us that the seminary was just around the corner. However, much to my chagrin, we had missed Maariv! We inquired when the next Maariv would take place, and we were told that there usually was a Maariv minyan at 9:00 p.m. But since it was a fast day, everyone had probably already davened, and there was only a slim chance that there would be another minyan tonight.

After a short visit with our niece, we headed back into the center of Tzfas, hoping to find others who had not davened Maariv yet. However, we were unsuccessful. Several people suggested that we go to Miron. Perhaps we would yet find a minyan at the grave of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai. And so we got into the car and drove back to Miron.

In Miron, we found only one other person who had not yet davened Maariv. We waited for a while, and slowly came to the realization that we would not find anyone else to complete the minyan. I asked the people there to get together for Borchu, and davened Maariv without a minyan. It really bothered me that I would not daven with a minyan. However, I consoled myself with the fact that I was davening at one of the holiest sites in the world.

In the middle of Maariv, my cell phone rang. Of course, I ignored it. After Maariv, the phone rang again. Since I am a Kohen, I had been davening on the outer porch, and did not feel it wrong to answer the phone. It was a woman who urgently needed to speak to me on a work related matter. At the close of the conversation, I asked her if she had any request she wanted me to convey at this holy site.

After a few seconds of quiet, she said, “Of course. You know that my grandson Shimmy urgently needs a refuah.”

I had completely forgotten that her two-year-old grandson, Shimon, was suffering from cancer. This woman told me that the child was named Shimon, because close to three years earlier, the child’s father had traveled from New York to Miron to daven at the very spot where I was now standing. At that time, the father had promised that if their next child would be a boy, he would name the child Shimon, after Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai.

Nine months later, Shimmy was born.

With this information, I realized why I had missed Maariv in Tzfas. Hashem had directed my steps back to Miron to beseech Him on Shimon’s behalf!

I thought that this was the end of the story. But it was not.

The next evening, the same woman called me and told me the following amazing story. On Wednesday, Shimmy was in the hospital getting blood transfusions. His blood count was low, and he was weak. Then, all of a sudden, his condition began to improve, and within a few hours, he was discharged from the hospital. What caused that sudden turnaround?

The child’s mother said that the improvement began at about 1:00 p.m. Calculating a seven hour distance between America and Eretz Yisroel, his improvement began at the exact time that I was praying at the gravesite of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai!

I know that I am no tzaddik and cannot effect such miraculous occurrences. However, I was humbled by the fact that through my tefillos at the right time and the right place, the koach of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai helped bring a refuah to this child on that day.

Caveat Emptor – Beware of Grave Robbers

Wednesday, January 25th, 2006

It is not uncommon for Observant Jews to want to be buried in Eretz Yisroel. While this involved considerable difficulty in the past, the advent of modern day air travel has made burial in Eretz Yisroel a viable option. Those who want to do this often purchase karka (plots) from an organization, such as a Chevra Kadisha, so that after 120 years their final resting place will be ready to receive their remains. This is a story of a family that thought it was doing just that, but discovered to its surprise and chagrin, that their purchase was not really a purchase.

Reb A has been a member of a Chevra Kadisha for many years. He joined while yet a young man, because his father was an active member. Father and son were zoche to do many taharos over the years. In the early Eighties Reb A’s parents and siblings decided to buy a family burial “plot” in Eretz Yisroel, because they all wanted to be buried in adjoining graves. They contacted an organization and, for a considerable sum of money, purchased a family burial place in a cemetery in Yerushalayim.  At the time of the purchase they received official looking documents attesting to their ownership of these plots. These were put away in a safe place, and nothing further was thought about the matter.

(In order for the reader to fully understand the thrust of this article, it is important to point out here that the organization from which Reb A’s family purchased their family burial place is not one of the Chevra Kadishes of Yerushalayim. The burial plots that Reb A’s family purchased were not sold to them by a Chevra Kadisha of Yerushalayim.)

About ten years ago Reb A’s father passed away. After a funeral in the U.S., Reb A flew with the nifter to Eretz Yisroel in order to have his father interred in one of the family plots. At the time of the actual burial Reb A noted that the grave that had been dug for his father was not where he thought it should be. According to the deeds that Reb A had, the grave that had been dug, while in the same row, was adjacent to the plots indicated on his deeds. It did not seem to him to be in the right spot. When Reb A mentioned this, his concerns were dismissed, and he accepted this. After all, he had just lost his father and overcome with emotion. His father was buried in the grave that had been dug, and Reb A thought no more of the matter. Over the years, when he visited Eretz Yisroel, he went to his father’s grave to pay his respects.

About a year ago, Reb A’s mother became quite ill. To save her from dying from infection, it became necessary to amputate one of her legs. Since the limb required burial, Reb A contacted the Chevra Kadisha of Yerushalayim to advise them that he would be sending the limb for burial. It was then that Reb A got the surprise of his life. He was told that his family did not own any graves next to his father!

Reb A was absolutely flabbergasted and dumbfounded. He could not believe what he had been told. “I have certificates for graves next to my father for my mother, my siblings and me,” he said. After a good deal of back and forth the following came out. The organization that had sold Reb A’s family the plots had also sold those same plots to a number of other families!!! Another family had purchased the plots two years before! These buyers had deeds from the Chevra Kadisha of Yerushalayim, whereas the deeds that Reb A had were issued by another organization.  Those with deeds from the Chevra Kadisha of Yerushalayim were the rightful owners. Reb A’s official looking certificates were worthless!

The greed of the representatives of this organization had led to a scam: offer the same plots to a number of people, take money for the sale, and then pocket the funds from the second and third and who knows how many other sales of the same plots. After the first sale this organization contacted and paid the Chevra Kadisha of Yerushalayim for the plots. But they did not, of course, do this for the other sales of the same plots.  No matter that only the first buyer really owned the graves! It is wickedness that is virtually incomprehensible.

At this point it is important for the reader to understand how some organizations raise money through the sale of plots. The Chevra Kadisha of Yerushalayim is the only rightful owner of the Yerushalayim cemeteries. Various organizations contract with this Chevra Kadisha for the right to sell a number of plots in a certain location at a certain price per plot. An organization looking to raise funds sells these plots to individuals at a higher price. The difference between what they get for the sale of the plot and what they have to pay to the Chevra Kadisha is used to support the activities of the organization.

After hearing this, Reb A was completely devastated. He had no place to bury his mother’s leg. Furthermore, his mother and his siblings would never be buried near his father. “I cried for three nights,” he told me. “I could not sleep, I could not eat. We thought that over twenty years ago we had been assured that the family would eventually rest together. Now it will never be. Now it will never be! They sold the plots to others before they sold them to us!”

Reb A contacted the Chevra Kadisha of Yerushalayim.  After all, he was under pressure to have his mother’s leg, which was being kept frozen in dry ice, buried as soon as possible. Furthermore, he wanted to “replace” the plots that the family thought it owned, but really did not. After some discussion, he was told that the required number of graves was available in a spot not far from where his father is buried. Before agreeing to the purchase of these plots, Reb A wanted to see them, so he flew to Eretz Yisroel.

Upon arriving in Eretz Yisroel, he met with a representative of the Chevra Kadisha of Yerushalayim and was shown the plots being offered.  He agreed to take them. But now the question was, “Who is going to pay for the purchase of these new plots?” Reb A naturally felt that the organization that had taken his family’s money for a fraudulent sale of nonexistent graves should pay. At first this organization had the nerve to equivocate about paying! It was only after Reb A threatened to go to a lawyer and go public with this sordid incident that the organization paid for the new plots.

Reb A and his family now have graves near each other and his mother’s leg is buried in one of them. However, he still cannot get over the fact that his family may never, after 120 years, be buried in the same row as his father. He has asked a number of rabbonim, and he has been told that he can, if he wants to, move his father to one of the new plots, but only after a family member passes away and is buried there.  He is reluctant to do this, because his father is buried near a very important person.

Reb A told me, “It does not matter how fancy a ‘deed’ you have to a plot in a cemetery in Yerushalayim. Unless you have a deed from the Chevra Kadisha of Yerushalayim, it could be worthless. Tell everyone who has purchased karka in Yerushalayim to make sure that they have deeds issued by the Chevra Kadisha of Yerushalayim! If not, they could be in for a very rude awakening!”

Apparently, even when it comes to death and burial one must keep in mind “Caveat Emptor.” Beware of grave robbers!

Editor’s Note: Dr. Levine has confirmed this story with a representative of the largest Chevra Kadisha in Yerushalayim.  Indeed, it was this Chevra Kadisha that did everything within its power to help Reb A resolve his problems as quickly as possible. Reb A is grateful to them, because he is certain that, without their assistance, he would not have been able to obtain a new family burial place at no additional cost.

For the record, the Chevra Kadisha that assisted Reb A now refuses to deal with the organization that “sold” Reb A’s family their burial place. The representative to whom Dr. Levine spoke told him that he knows for certain of at least one other person who encountered the same problems as Reb A. Reb A knows of yet another person who found himself in similar circumstances. Furthermore, it seems that there are several others who have encountered these sorts of problems. While it’s unclear how widespread a problem this is, there have been enough incidents to warrant concern.

There are eleven Chevra Kadishes in Yerushalayim. They are under the control of the Israeli Ministry of Religion. The Chevra Kadishes of Yerushalayim are not for profit organizations. They are regulated by an Israeli Non-Profit Board.

Tragedy Within A Tragedy

Friday, June 29th, 2001

So many images keep crowding my mind. Images that do not allow me to rest or feel at peace. The news from Eretz Yisroel grows more menacing with every day. I’ve heard some people say that they’ve stopped reading the papers -the news is just too awful. And others do read, but they shrug their shoulders saying, ‘That’s how things are in Israel. What can one do?’ And I see the danger in accepting the banality of evil. But the stories in the news cry out and pierce your heart. Who can forget five- year-old little Sascha, a victim of the Netanya bombing, writhing in agony, screaming ‘Mommy, Mommy!?’ as he lay alone in Room 8 of Hillel Yaffa Hospital in Hadera. His little face had been chewed by shrapnel, his jawbone and collarbone were broken, his cries muffled by the oxygen mask covering his mouth. Mommy cannot come to Sascha. She too is a victim and is downstairs in the O.R., undergoing major surgery. Strangely enough, Sascha does not call for his father. Perhaps he instinctively knows that Daddy is gone – when the bomb exploded, he was blown to smithereens.

I hear the cries of two young boys who were savagely bludgeoned to death, their skulls crushed beyond recognition. I keep thinking of their parents who hear their cries day and night, who go to sleep with a nightmare from which they cannot awaken.

I see the sweet cherubic face of ten-month-old Shalhevet Pass, being pushed in her stroller by Mommy and Daddy. They are on their way to visit Grandma and Grandpa in the Avraham Avinu neighborhood of Hebron. Suddenly, a bullet pierces her skull, and Shahlevet Pass is no more. And you wonder what sort of beast can deliberately aim his sniper scope at a baby sitting in a stroller? I think of her parents, Yitzchok and Oriya, seeing their baby killed before their very eyes. They will re-live that moment as long as they live. And it’s not over – the list goes on and on.

I see the two young Israeli reservists who mistakenly took a wrong turn into Ramallah. They were brutally lynched, then flung out of a window like so much refuse. But the frenzied mob could not let go and stomped their bodies until their skulls became like bowls of red jelly.

I see Binyamin and Talia Kahane’s six little orphans who will never again hear their mother’s caressing voice or feel their father’s protective arms around them. I see the Cohen children without limbs. I see the orphans, the widows, the widowers, and the mothers and the fathers whose babies and children have been maimed and killed in this carnage. ‘Al aleh ani bochea – For these do I weep…’ Alas, another chapter has been added to Aicha – our Book of Lamentations..

No one wants to see or understand our pain. As expected, the whole world has turned against us. As a survivor of Bergen Belsen, I am not surprised at that, but still, one would have hoped that there would be some outcry, some condemnation of the savagery. The media has an uncanny way of equating bestial Arab atrocities with Israel’s actions of self-defense. Make no mistake about it – what the Arabs are perpetrating is beyond war, beyond terrorism. It is unmitigated cruelty for the sake of cruelty; barbarism for the sake of barbarism.

I remember in the 50′s, when some Israelis were captured by Arabs. Not only were they killed, but the savages cut off their genitals and drank their blood – and that was typical Arab behavior. Somehow, somewhere, our Israeli leadership chose to forget this and persuaded themselves that Arafat and company are really decent fellows who sought peace and only needed an opportunity to prove themselves…. Thus, the Oslo accords were born. We handed over our land and now we are reaping the bloody harvest. Yes, this is beyond war, beyond terrorism. This is satanic evil for the sake of evil. But the world refuses to see it. It is not only the media that is part of this Israel bashing. The Pope, who is supposed to be a man of G-d, is a silent accomplice as well. He didn’t utter a word of protest while, in his presence, Bashar Assad of Syria vilified Israel with a most vicious, anti-Semitic diatribe, reminiscent of Hitler. And so, the Arabs continue to kill our men, women, and children, and the world, led by the media, continues to assail us for defending ourselves.

But there is another tragedy that most are unaware of. Inadvertently, The New York Times reported it. The shopping mall in Netanya, where the suicide bomber unleashed his carnage, houses a multi-screen cinema which is open on the Holy Sabbath. The Times reported that ‘despite the damage the mall was defiantly reopened on Friday night to allow brave local residents to go to the movies.’ Who can comprehend the enormity of this tragedy? Jews believing that they are demonstrating their courage when they go to the movies on Shabbat. Jews believing that we can show defiance by keeping shopping malls open on the holy Shabbat…. A tragedy within a tragedy. When will our people wake up and return to G-d’ -For these do I weep…’

What will it take to make our people realize that there is no one to help us except HaShem? When will they understand that the Torah is our tree of life, and Shabbat is our holy sanctuary?

What are we to do? How are we to respond to this terrible hour in our history?

Our sages teach that whatever happened to our forefathers will be repeated in our own lives. The manner in which our first redemption from Egypt occurred, so will the final redemption unfold. Chazal teache us that our forefathers were steeped in idolatry and did not merit the exodus. So what was it that impelled HaShem to bring us forth from that house of bondage?

Simply stated, the answer is chesed – the loving kindness that one Jew demonstrated for another. At the end of the Parsha of Shemos, we find that the people were afflicted with terrible suffering. Pharaoh intensified their burden by demanding that they produce their own bricks while maintaining the same production quota – an impossible task. Jewish overseers were charged with the responsibility of seeing to it that the people delivered the bricks, and if they failed to do so, the Jews were flogged. The Jewish leaders however, could not bear to hear the painful cry of their brethren, so they took the beatings upon themselves, and when HaShem saw this, He proclaimed. ‘Gam ani shamati – I also heard.’

When G-d sees that we have compassion for one another, that we are sensitive to another’s needs, and are even prepared to accept pain in order to spare our brethren, then G-d will act accordingly and bring about our redemption.

This then must become our task. At the very least, let?s try to feel with our brothers and sisters. Let us cry out to the heavens on behalf of Acheinu Kol Beit Yisroel – our brothers, our Jewish people. Let us undertake to say Tehillim every day. Let us intensify our devotion to Shabbos and mitzvos so that the energy of our commitment will spill over to those who do not know or understand. That is the ‘defiance’ that the Arabs and the world should see – Jews sticking together like glue, upholding Eretz Yisroel with chesed, Torah, and mitzvos.

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/judaism/rebbetzins-viewpointrebbetzin-jungreis/tragedy-within-a-tragedy/2001/06/29/

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