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July 23, 2014 / 25 Tammuz, 5774
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Posts Tagged ‘language’

In Hebrew: ‘Behavior’

Sunday, May 5th, 2013

הִתְנַהֲגוּת To behave is to conduct oneself in a certain way. It is therefore not surprising that the Hebrew word for to behave comes from the Biblical root meaning conduct or drive -נ.ה.ג (n.h.g).

To behave is לְהִתְנַהֵג (leh-heet-nah-HEG), a reflexive-intensive התפעל verb.

And following the verbal-noun pattern, behavior is הִתְנַהֲגוּת (heet-nah-hah-GOOT).

For example, הַהִתְנַהֲגוּת שֶׁל הַיָּלְדָה הִיא לֹא מְקֻבֶּלֶתthe girl’s behavior is unacceptable - (hah-heet-nah-hah-GOOT shel hah-yahl-DAH hee loh meh-koo-BEH-let).

Some other words of the same root are מִנְהָגcustom or tradition (meen-HAHG),לִנְהוֹגto drive (leen-HOHG) and לְהַנְהִיגto lead (leh-hahn-HEEG).

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In Hebrew: ‘Return’

Friday, May 3rd, 2013

לַחְזוֹר, לָשׁוּב


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In Hebrew: ‘Pride’

Thursday, May 2nd, 2013

גַּאֲוָה

Pride – what a contentious emotion. On the one hand, religions list it among the most grievous of sins or character traits. On the other hand, the gay community calls upon it as their staple state of being. But perhaps more accessible to most people is that swelling-up feeling inside, when we know we’ve done a good job, when someone speaks of our native country in a foreign land… or when someone we love is shining in the spotlight. The Hebrew word for pride is גַּאֲוָה, while proud is גֵּאֶה in the masculine and גֵּאָה in the feminine.

For example:

לִבִּי מִתְמַלֵּא בְּגַּאֲוָה כְּשֶׁאֲנִי רוֹאֶה דֶּגֶל כָּחוֹל לָבָן. My heart is filled with pride when I see a blue-and-white flag. and

הִיא גֵּאָה בַּבֵּן שֶׁלָּהּ. She’s proud of her son. To take pride is לְהִתְגָּאוֹת.
For example:

בַּמֶּה רָאוּי לְהִתְגָּאוֹת, וּבַמֶּה לֹּא?
What is worthy of taking pride in, and what not?
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In Hebrew: ‘Justice’

Wednesday, May 1st, 2013

צֶדֶק After yesterday’s fatal attack, one of the things on people’s minds in this part of the world is justiceצֶדֶק.

Here’s an example of צדק used in the context of a different series of events, from the summer of 2011:

הָעַם דּוֹרֵשׁ צֶדֶק חֶבְרָתִי! The people demand social justice! This three-letter word forms the root for other words such as the active-causative הִפְעִיל verb, לְהַצְדִיק- to justify, the word for righteous personצַדִּיק in the masculine and צַדִּיקָהin the feminine – and the Hebrew equivalent for charityצְדָקָה (in Biblical Hebrewצדקה means righteousness), among others.

It’s also part of the name of an upscale neighborhood in Tel Aviv, נְוֵה צֶדֶק- literally, abode or home of justice. צדק is also the Hebrew name for the planet Jupiter.

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In Hebrew: ‘Subconscious’

Tuesday, April 30th, 2013

תַּת-מוּדָע

If מוּדָעוּת is awareness or consciousness, תַּת-מוּדָעis the subconscious or the unconscious. The particle -תַּת means sub- or under-, just as in English, in phrases like:

תַּת-יַמִּיunderwater
תַּת-מִיןsubspecies
תַּת-אָלוּףbrigadier general (subservient to the general)

An example of תת-מודע:

זִיגְמוֹנְד פְּרוֹיד פִּתֵּחַ אֶת הַמֻּשָּׂג שֶׁל הַתַּת-מוּדָע.
Sigmund Freud developed the concept of the unconscious.

Although, strictly speaking, the unconscious should be called תת-הַמודע, since תת-מודע is almost a single word on its own, it’s more appropriate to say הַתת-מודע.

Note that here unconscious refers to the psychological phenomenon, not the state of being unconscious of what’s going around around due to injury, etc. That is חֲסַר הַכָּרָה.

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In Hebrew: ‘Awareness’

Monday, April 29th, 2013

מוּדָעוּת

Many would argue that modernity brought with it an increase in self awareness among individuals. Others would say that such awareness has been lessened in our time (maybe we’ll debate it in the advanced conversation group I’m starting to teach tonight in Jerusalem).

In any case, the Hebrew word for awareness is a Modern one -

מוּדָעוּת - though it comes from a verb root introduced in the very first portion of the Torah: י.ד.ע(y.d.a), meaning knowledge.

For example:

בִּישְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ מוּדָעוּת מֻגְבֶּרֶת לְחֲפָצִים חֲשׁוּדִים.
In Israel there is increased awareness of suspicious objects.

And self awareness is מוּדָעוּת עַצְמִית.

If you wish to say, this person is self-aware or aware of himself, you’d say:

הָאָדָם הַזֶּה מוּדָע לְעַצְמוֹ.

Note that מודעis followed by …לְmeaning to.

Here’s an example in the feminine:

הָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת מוּדַעַת לְעַצְמָהּ.
This woman is self-aware.

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In Hebrew: ‘Replacement’

Sunday, April 28th, 2013

תַּחְלִיף To replace or exchange something is לְהַחְלִיף (leh-hahkh-LEEF) – for instance, when I bought a shirt and a pair of pants at Renuar last week, I asked, ?אֶפְשַׁר לְהַחְלִיף אֹתָם אִם אֲנִי רוֹצֶה (ef-SHAHR leh-hahkh-LEEF oh-TAHM eem ah-NEE roh-TSEH) – might I exchange them if I want?

להחליף is an active-causative הִפְעִיל verb. So it follows that the act of replacing or exchanging isהַחְלָפָה (hahkh-lah-FAH).But a replacement – the item or person in a role that comes in place of something else – is a תַּחְלִיף (tahkh-LEEF).

The teachers at Ulpan La-Inyan מַחְלִיפִים אֶחָד אֶת הַשֵּׁנִי לִפְעָמִיםthey replace one another sometimes (mahkh-lee-FEEM eh-KHAH et hah-sheh-NEE leef-ah-MEEM). And although teachers come and go, and their roles get transferred from one person to the next, בְּאֶמֶת, אֵין לָהֶם תַּחְלִיףreally, there’s no replacement for them (beh-eh-MET EH-een lah-HEM tahkh-LEEF) – since each teacher brings his or her own unique set of gifts and talents to the classroom with which they engage their students.

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Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/blogs/ktzat-ivrit/in-hebrew-replacement/2013/04/28/

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