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December 21, 2014 / 29 Kislev, 5775
 
At a Glance

Posts Tagged ‘Rabbi Schudrich’

Ostroleka Jewish Cemetery Exposed During Roadwork

Wednesday, May 27th, 2009

          The Jewish community in Ostroleka Poland was first established in the 17th century and like all other communities in Poland saw good times and bad. At the beginning of the 20th century the community numbered 6,219. During WWI the Russian Army destroyed the town while retreating and many Jews left for other cities, especially Warsaw. But after the war, Jews returned to Ostrolekaand by 1921 they numbered 3,352, more then a third of the total population.

 

During the Shoah the Germans occupied Ostroleka, and in September 1939, they immediately killed many Jews and exiled the rest to the Russian sector. Many who had stayed nearby in places, such as Bialystok, were later caught in the German trap when they invaded Russian territory in June of 1941.

 

This short history cannot do justice to the glory that had once been the Jewish community of Ostroleka. There were the rabbis, furriers, shoemakers, potters, and shop keepers. The street would have been full of laughing children and adults struggling to make a living. A true community.

 

Today there are no more Jews in the town. The synagogue is now a garage and there had been no sign (until recently) of the cemetery that once held the remains of hundreds, if not thousands, of Jews that once called Ostroleka home.

 

 


Human remains exposed in Ostroleka during roadwork

 

 

It was the Germans who first started the desecration of the Jewish cemetery in Ostroleka and it was the communist regime that erased the final signs of the cemetery. They built a road through the cemetery, as well as a school. Thirty years ago water, sewer and telephone lines were laid on the cemetery grounds.

 

As in all municipal works there is need for renovation and upgrades. A few weeks ago Ostroleka started work in Janusza KorczakaUl, the street that runs through the cemetery. There is a law in Poland that requires all towns and cities to notify the Rabbinic Council for Jewish Cemeteries in advance of any work but in the case of Ostroleka this was not done.

 

In a telephone interview Chief Rabbi of Poland, Rabbi Michael Schudrich, said that it had been bad enough that the cemetery had been destroyed 30 years ago by the communists but now the modern town was going against Polish law and exposing human remains.

 

“This is not the first time a city has uncovered a cemetery during roadwork,” Rabbi Schudrich said. “Two years ago we had a problem in Lodz. The city itself realized the problem, immediately contacted the local Jewish community and came to a solution. They acted in full respect, understanding the importance that the community held for the cemetery and those interred within.”

 

In Ostroleka it is a different story.

 

The work planned goes further then the past destruction. The town plans to replace five lines and install one new one placing the lines deeper then before and even widening the road itself.

 

“They just don’t get it,” Rabbi Schudrich said. “My job is to make them understand.”

 

“It is ironic that the name of the road going through the cemetery is named after the great educator and Warsaw Ghetto orphanage head, Janusza Korczaka.”


 


The latest news from Ostroleka is that all work has been stopped for a few days until a solution can be found that will be acceptable to both sides of the dispute. I have sent a letter to the Ostroleka City Council but have yet to receive a reply.


 


 


 


 


Gura Kalwaria



         It has been reported that the Ohel of the tzadikim of Gur has been vandalized with graffiti. Written in German, “Juden Raus” (Jews out), was painted on the mausoleum, a swastika was painted, and the doorway was blocked with construction material.

 

        The Cemetery in Gur is visited regularly by thousands of Gerer Chassidim every year. Last week the bus containing visitors who had discovered the vandalism was stoned by some local youths. The police have been notified but as of yet have made no arrests.



 



The graffiti on the Ohel of the Gerer Rebbes in Gura Kalwaria 

Ostroleka Jewish Cemetery Exposed During Roadwork

Wednesday, May 27th, 2009

          The Jewish community in Ostroleka Poland was first established in the 17th century and like all other communities in Poland saw good times and bad. At the beginning of the 20th century the community numbered 6,219. During WWI the Russian Army destroyed the town while retreating and many Jews left for other cities, especially Warsaw. But after the war, Jews returned to Ostrolekaand by 1921 they numbered 3,352, more then a third of the total population.

 

During the Shoah the Germans occupied Ostroleka, and in September 1939, they immediately killed many Jews and exiled the rest to the Russian sector. Many who had stayed nearby in places, such as Bialystok, were later caught in the German trap when they invaded Russian territory in June of 1941.

 

This short history cannot do justice to the glory that had once been the Jewish community of Ostroleka. There were the rabbis, furriers, shoemakers, potters, and shop keepers. The street would have been full of laughing children and adults struggling to make a living. A true community.

 

Today there are no more Jews in the town. The synagogue is now a garage and there had been no sign (until recently) of the cemetery that once held the remains of hundreds, if not thousands, of Jews that once called Ostroleka home.

 

 

Human remains exposed in Ostroleka during roadwork

 

 

It was the Germans who first started the desecration of the Jewish cemetery in Ostroleka and it was the communist regime that erased the final signs of the cemetery. They built a road through the cemetery, as well as a school. Thirty years ago water, sewer and telephone lines were laid on the cemetery grounds.

 

As in all municipal works there is need for renovation and upgrades. A few weeks ago Ostroleka started work in Janusza KorczakaUl, the street that runs through the cemetery. There is a law in Poland that requires all towns and cities to notify the Rabbinic Council for Jewish Cemeteries in advance of any work but in the case of Ostroleka this was not done.

 

In a telephone interview Chief Rabbi of Poland, Rabbi Michael Schudrich, said that it had been bad enough that the cemetery had been destroyed 30 years ago by the communists but now the modern town was going against Polish law and exposing human remains.

 

“This is not the first time a city has uncovered a cemetery during roadwork,” Rabbi Schudrich said. “Two years ago we had a problem in Lodz. The city itself realized the problem, immediately contacted the local Jewish community and came to a solution. They acted in full respect, understanding the importance that the community held for the cemetery and those interred within.”

 

In Ostroleka it is a different story.

 

The work planned goes further then the past destruction. The town plans to replace five lines and install one new one placing the lines deeper then before and even widening the road itself.

 

“They just don’t get it,” Rabbi Schudrich said. “My job is to make them understand.”

 

“It is ironic that the name of the road going through the cemetery is named after the great educator and Warsaw Ghetto orphanage head, Janusza Korczaka.”

 

The latest news from Ostroleka is that all work has been stopped for a few days until a solution can be found that will be acceptable to both sides of the dispute. I have sent a letter to the Ostroleka City Council but have yet to receive a reply.

 

 

 

 

Gura Kalwaria

         It has been reported that the Ohel of the tzadikim of Gur has been vandalized with graffiti. Written in German, “Juden Raus” (Jews out), was painted on the mausoleum, a swastika was painted, and the doorway was blocked with construction material.

 

        The Cemetery in Gur is visited regularly by thousands of Gerer Chassidim every year. Last week the bus containing visitors who had discovered the vandalism was stoned by some local youths. The police have been notified but as of yet have made no arrests.

 

The graffiti on the Ohel of the Gerer Rebbes in Gura Kalwaria 

Rabbi Pinchas Zarcynsky Arrives In Warsaw

Wednesday, December 3rd, 2008


     The Jewish community in Poland has been growing both in size and spirituality. In the past few years there has been a resurgence of the community’s religious needs, and one rabbi alone can no longer handle them. In the past few years there has been an influx of rabbis that have taken up residence in Poland. Rabbi Michael Schudrich has been involved in Poland since 1989 though during the first years he did not serve in a rabbinic capacity.

 

     After the then-Chief Rabbi of Poland, Rabbi Pinchas Joskowitch retired, Rabbi Schudrich was selected by the community to replace him. At the time there was no other rabbi working full-time in Poland though Rabbi Gluck of Boro Park had been serving as rabbi for Krakow during the High Holidays for a number of years.

 

   There’s an old joke that the sign of civilization in any location is the arrival of Coca-Cola and a Chabad House. Four years ago Chabad arrived in Poland and set up a synagogue and learning center in Warsaw and soon after in Krakow.

 

    But communal needs spread to other cities as well. Enter Shavei Israel, an organization in Israel that is most famous for looking for lost Jews around the world. Two years ago they sent two rabbis to Poland and have recently sent a third representative, Rabbi Pinchas Zarcynsky, to reside in Warsaw.

 

   Rabbi Zarcynsky, 27, comes from Jerusalem. He is married and the father of a new baby. He speaks Hebrew, Polish and English, holds a degree in Architecture and Engineering from ORT College and in Jewish Studies from the Machon Meir Institute in Jerusalem and graduated from the Straus-Amiel Institute for Training Rabbis and Educators for the Diaspora.

 

   Rabbi Schudrich said in a Thanksgiving Day interview that he is looking forward to working with Rabbi Zarcynsky in Warsaw. He explained that Rabbi Zarcynsky’s help is invaluable to growth in the community. His duties will include the day-to-day operations of religious activities such as the running of the Nozyk Synagogue.

 

     Rabbi Schudrich is very excited at having Rabbi Zarcynsky take over the cheder for young children. Last year there were 12 students and there are hopes for expansion. He will also work with teens and the elderly.

 

    Rabbi Zarcynsky, as a representative of Shavei Israel, will be joining Rabbi Boaz Pash, who serves as Rabbi of Krakow, and Rabbi Yitzhak Rapaport, who serves as Rabbi of Wroclaw in the organization’s activities in Poland. These activities include: convening seminars and symposia in Poland and Israel for the “hidden Jews” of Poland; publishing newsletters and other Polish-language print publications on Jewish subjects and distributing them among various communities in Poland; providing assistance with the aliyah, conversion and absorption process for those members of the community in Poland that choose to immigrate to Israel, and more.

 

    The importance of finding “Hidden Jews” is of utmost importance. Rabbi Schudrich once noted, “If we had a chance to go to Spain 50 years after the Inquisition nobody would have blinked. Here we have a similar situation, we have a chance to save thousands. How can we turn our back on them?”

 

    The “Hidden Jews” is a phenomenon that has gained strength in Poland in recent years, with many Jews slowly returning to Judaism and the Jewish people. Many of these Jews lost all contact with Judaism due to the extreme anti-Semitism that they encountered after the Holocaust, and some of them even converted. Others concealed their Judaism from the Communist authorities and now feel free to resume their true identities.

 

   Another phenomenon pertains to Jewish youths that were adopted by Catholic families and institutions during the Holocaust. They were told nothing of their Jewish identity, and only in recent years have they gradually begun to discover it.

 

     Today around 4,000 Jews are registered as living in Poland, but according to various estimates, there are tens of thousands of others that have concealed their true identity or are simply unaware of it.

 

    “We are pleased to have Rabbi Pinchas Zarcynsky join the ranks of Shavei Israel. This is a direct result of the expansion of our activity throughout Poland in view of the renewal of Jewish life taking place there and the many and complex challenges involved,” said Shavei Israel Chairman Michael Freund. “Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, more and more young Poles are rediscovering their Jewish roots and expressing a desire to become closer to the Jewish people and the State of Israel. We cannot turn our backs on this challenge, which is historical and exciting like no other,” he noted.

Rabbi Pinchas Zarcynsky Arrives In Warsaw

Wednesday, December 3rd, 2008

     The Jewish community in Poland has been growing both in size and spirituality. In the past few years there has been a resurgence of the community’s religious needs, and one rabbi alone can no longer handle them. In the past few years there has been an influx of rabbis that have taken up residence in Poland. Rabbi Michael Schudrich has been involved in Poland since 1989 though during the first years he did not serve in a rabbinic capacity.

 

     After the then-Chief Rabbi of Poland, Rabbi Pinchas Joskowitch retired, Rabbi Schudrich was selected by the community to replace him. At the time there was no other rabbi working full-time in Poland though Rabbi Gluck of Boro Park had been serving as rabbi for Krakow during the High Holidays for a number of years.

 

   There’s an old joke that the sign of civilization in any location is the arrival of Coca-Cola and a Chabad House. Four years ago Chabad arrived in Poland and set up a synagogue and learning center in Warsaw and soon after in Krakow.

 

    But communal needs spread to other cities as well. Enter Shavei Israel, an organization in Israel that is most famous for looking for lost Jews around the world. Two years ago they sent two rabbis to Poland and have recently sent a third representative, Rabbi Pinchas Zarcynsky, to reside in Warsaw.

 

   Rabbi Zarcynsky, 27, comes from Jerusalem. He is married and the father of a new baby. He speaks Hebrew, Polish and English, holds a degree in Architecture and Engineering from ORT College and in Jewish Studies from the Machon Meir Institute in Jerusalem and graduated from the Straus-Amiel Institute for Training Rabbis and Educators for the Diaspora.

 

   Rabbi Schudrich said in a Thanksgiving Day interview that he is looking forward to working with Rabbi Zarcynsky in Warsaw. He explained that Rabbi Zarcynsky’s help is invaluable to growth in the community. His duties will include the day-to-day operations of religious activities such as the running of the Nozyk Synagogue.

 

     Rabbi Schudrich is very excited at having Rabbi Zarcynsky take over the cheder for young children. Last year there were 12 students and there are hopes for expansion. He will also work with teens and the elderly.

 

    Rabbi Zarcynsky, as a representative of Shavei Israel, will be joining Rabbi Boaz Pash, who serves as Rabbi of Krakow, and Rabbi Yitzhak Rapaport, who serves as Rabbi of Wroclaw in the organization’s activities in Poland. These activities include: convening seminars and symposia in Poland and Israel for the “hidden Jews” of Poland; publishing newsletters and other Polish-language print publications on Jewish subjects and distributing them among various communities in Poland; providing assistance with the aliyah, conversion and absorption process for those members of the community in Poland that choose to immigrate to Israel, and more.

 

    The importance of finding “Hidden Jews” is of utmost importance. Rabbi Schudrich once noted, “If we had a chance to go to Spain 50 years after the Inquisition nobody would have blinked. Here we have a similar situation, we have a chance to save thousands. How can we turn our back on them?”

 

    The “Hidden Jews” is a phenomenon that has gained strength in Poland in recent years, with many Jews slowly returning to Judaism and the Jewish people. Many of these Jews lost all contact with Judaism due to the extreme anti-Semitism that they encountered after the Holocaust, and some of them even converted. Others concealed their Judaism from the Communist authorities and now feel free to resume their true identities.

 

   Another phenomenon pertains to Jewish youths that were adopted by Catholic families and institutions during the Holocaust. They were told nothing of their Jewish identity, and only in recent years have they gradually begun to discover it.

 

     Today around 4,000 Jews are registered as living in Poland, but according to various estimates, there are tens of thousands of others that have concealed their true identity or are simply unaware of it.

 

    “We are pleased to have Rabbi Pinchas Zarcynsky join the ranks of Shavei Israel. This is a direct result of the expansion of our activity throughout Poland in view of the renewal of Jewish life taking place there and the many and complex challenges involved,” said Shavei Israel Chairman Michael Freund. “Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, more and more young Poles are rediscovering their Jewish roots and expressing a desire to become closer to the Jewish people and the State of Israel. We cannot turn our backs on this challenge, which is historical and exciting like no other,” he noted.

Passing The Torch: The Piotrkow Shabbaton

Wednesday, October 22nd, 2008

     Last week I wrote how important it is that the second generation of Holocaust survivors begin to take over the work of preserving the memory of Jewish life and culture in the many towns and cities that had been mostly destroyed during the Shoah. I used the actions of the survivors of Piotrkow as an example of what can be done by the survivor generation and their descendants. Over the years memorials have been built, and the cemetery repaired with ohalim to the local tzaddikim rebuilt.


     This year the second generation took over; they not only cleaned and catalogued the cemetery but also got the town involved. A mini Jewish festival was held with hundreds of participants, with movies, song, dance, lectures and a Shabbaton as the grand finale.


    The weekend of June 27-28, 2008 marked a unique event. A group of Piotrkow survivors and descendants, joined by a contingent of Polish Jews and local citizens of Piotrkow, gathered in Piotrkow and exuberantly celebrated a Shabbat of prayer, festive meals, Shabbat songs, Torah learning, and of reconnecting with the Piotrkow legacy.


   The event was organized by Michael Traison, a U.S. and Poland-based lawyer, who had previously led Shabbatonim in other Polish communities, and by David Jacobovitz, a second-generation descendant of Piotrkow survivors.


   As with any trip to the Alter Heim, the first stop was to the memorial sites, to remember those that had been murdered during the Holocaust. In Piotrkow the first stop is the Rakow Forest just outside of town. It was there that the Germans killed over 500 Jews in 1942 after being kept in the Great Synagogue for days without food or drink. The group gathered together to hear presentations from the Ambassador of Israel, David Peleg, and the Ambassador of the U.S., Victor Ash, the Director of the Zamek Museum, Henryk Pol, the Chief Rabbi of Poland, Rabbi Michael Schudrich and the Mayor of Piotrkow, Krzysztof Chojniak.


    From Rakow, we went to the Jewish cemetery in Piotrkow. The group fanned out, seeking evidence of their families’ gravestones, a number of which were found. They met with the people doing restoration work, which was being conducted by several of the group’s members, who had arrived earlier in the week.


    The Great Synagogue of Piotrkow had been transformed for the event. Normally a library, the stacks that filled the room had been pushed aside to leave a large open space in the middle, for seats occupied by Shabbaton attendees.


   The best description came from one of the Shabbaton participants, David Jacobowitz.


    “First, there was a Klezmer concert featuring the Jarmula Band. Hearing a lively rendition of Am Yisrael Chai sung in the Synagogue, the site of so much religious vibrancy, and also so much horror, was deeply moving for us. The cheerful Klezmer music resonating from these walls filled us with a feeling of optimism for the future. The Nazis had tried to utterly destroy us and now we were here singing “The people of Israel live!”


     As evening fell, we set up the room as a synagogue with a Holy Ark for the Torah, and separate sections for men and women. We commenced with the Minchah prayer and then Kabbalat Shabbat. As we listened to the sweet melodies of the chazzan singing “Lecha Dodi: Come in my [Sabbath] bride),” our hearts were filled with mixed emotions for what had been and what was destroyed. Our voices filled the room with Shabbat songs and reverberated from the walls of the holy place.


    After Maariv services, our group proceeded to the public school. There, the cafeteria was set up in a festive manner to accommodate 150 people. Among them were the international guests, the Polish Jewish group and dozens of local Polish dignitaries, including the mayor and his wife, leaders of the city government, church leaders, as well as Robert Marzec. He is the fine Polish man who had done so much to preserve the synagogue and the cemetery and would be receiving an award in Krakow in recognition of his contributions.


    During the course of the meal, a number of us spoke of our families’ experiences during the war. Our remarks were translated into Polish for all to understand. A number of the Polish visitors also offered greetings and Rabbi Schudrich delivered a beautiful Torah thought, enhanced by his unique ability to translate his own words into both English and Polish.


    The next morning, we arrived in the Synagogue for the morning services. We conducted the Shacharit service, read the Torah (which had been brought from Warsaw’s Nozyk Synagogue courtesy of Rabbi Schudrich) and concluded with the Mussaf prayer. Afterwards, one of the participants, Itzik Tushinsky, spoke of his father’s experience in this very room, where in 1942, he had been rounded up with other Jews who had survived the deportations and kept in the Synagogue for days, only to be rescued at the last moment.


    After services, we walked together to the school, where we again enjoyed a festive meal together with local Polish visitors. Afterwards, we returned to the hotel and most of us joined a walking tour of Piotrkow, one for English speakers and one for Polish speakers.


     There also were classes in Torah led by Rabbi Schudrich, Rabbi Meisels and Michael Traison. Afterwards, we returned to the school for a festive third meal, after which we joined in the Maariv (end of the Shabbat) service. Following that, we all went out to the park in the center of town where there was an amphitheater and joined in a musical and stirring Havdalah ceremony in the open air.


    As the Shabbaton closed, and we all went our separate ways, we were heartened by memories of our experience. We had joined together in the first Shabbat to be held in the Great Synagogue since the outbreak of World War II. During the weekend of June 27-28, 2008, Piotrkow shone brightly as a center of Jewish life, song, prayer and culture. Those of us that experienced it will never forget this singular event.

The Baudouina Orphanage

Wednesday, August 27th, 2008

On Thursday August 21 an unusual ceremony took place at the Baudouina Orphanage in Warsaw, Poland.  This orphanage saved more than 150 Jewish children during WW II.  At a time that the staff was barely able to keep non-Jewish children alive (lack of food, medicines, etc), they continued to take in Jewish children even while risking their own lives and the lives of the other children.  Miraculously, they were never caught by the Nazis.  This orphanage has been is existence for more than 200 years and is struggling with its present financial situation.

 

 


Rabbi Schudrich and Chagai Stern with the director of the orphanage, Maria Kolankiewicz, looking at the registry of children from 1942.

 


Two years ago, the Israeli Embassy presented the “Righteous Among the Nations” award of Yad Vashem to the former director of this orphanage and held the ceremony at the orphanage.  Rabbi Michael Schudrich, Chief Rabbi of Poland, also attended. ” Since that time, I have been looking for a small way to help this orphanage,” said Rabbi Schudrich.  A few months ago, Schudrich met Chagai Stern of “Israel to the Nation,” an Israeli NGO working to provide aid in 11 countries.  Stern jumped at the opportunity to do something for this orphanage and organized a truckload of toys and clothing to be sent. 

 

 


Chagai Stern with a box of toys.

 


This past Thursday, there was a small ceremony at the orphanage.  “Thank you for giving us a chance to do something very small for you,” said Rabbi Schudrich.  “We can never do enough to really say thank you but at least we can offer this small gesture.”  The orphanage staff was overwhelmed by the quality and quantity of this gift. 

 

 


Israeli Ambassador, David Peleg; Chagai Stern; Maria Kolankiewicz; and Rabbi Schudrich.

 


The small tricycles were immediately put to good use with small toddlers racing around in their new wheels.  There were so many items delivered that the Baudouina Orphanage will share some of the gifts with other orphanages. 

Yom HaShoah In Poland

Wednesday, May 7th, 2008

         Last week’s front page of The Jewish Press showed Crown Prince of England, Prince Charles, affixing a mezuzah to the door of a new Jewish center in Krakow, along with Rabbi Gluck, the Chief Rabbi Of Galicia and Rabbi Schudrich, the Chief Rabbi Of Poland. The event coincided with Holocaust Memorial Day in Poland, a national day of remembrance, marked on the secular date of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

 

         The Jewish community marks the event according to the Jewish calendar so often there is a gap between the ceremonies. This year different events were held between the two dates to celebrate Israel’s 60 years of independence.

 

         President of Israel Shimon Peres inscribed the final letters of a new Torah Scroll to be used by the Chabad Jewish Community Center in Warsaw. The ceremony, commemorating the 65th anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, took place at the Presidential Palace in Warsaw, before Pesach. 

 

         “The Nazis violated the Jewish people in body, but they could not touch the life and soul of our people: the Torah,” Peres said.

 

         Rabbi Sholom Stambler, the Chabad shaliach to Poland and head of Warsaw’s Chabad Center, blessed Peres at the palace. Afterward, the Israeli leader carried the Torah Scroll out of the palace and through the courtyard, while under the chuppah canopy, in a traditional procession of dancing and singing.

 

         The Torah was then installed at the Warsaw Beit Chabad. Mr. Peres is the second Israeli president to attend a Torah-writing ceremony in Poland. Former Israeli President Moshe Katzav had the honor at the Nozyk Synagogue last year with the Chief Rabbi Of Poland, Rabbi Schudrich.

 

         In his meetings with Polish governmental officials Peres was invited by Polish Minister Of State Ewa Junczyk-Ziomecka “to bring together Jews and Poles.” President Peres was born in Poland and has visited on a number of occasions, showing much interest in the history of the Jewish community and it’s rebirth after the Shoah.

 

         During his visit he also met with Irena Sendler, a 98-year-old Polish woman who helped save 2,500 Jewish children during the Nazi occupation that systematically murdered more than two million Polish Jews.

 

         Last week also saw the annual March of the Living when thousands of people from around the world gather at Auschwitz, then walk to Birkenau, in memory of those who were killed during the Shoah. The groups then spread throughout the country visiting other sites of Jewish significance.

 

         The only reported act of anti-Semitism was when a drunk broke into a Brazilian group’s hotel room claiming to have a bomb and that he was going to kill everyone. The Polish police quickly moved in and neutralized the situation. The man was found to be drunk and did not have had any explosive material with him.

 

         They say that a sure sign that a Jewish community exists is when there is more then one group and controversy between them.

 

         In Poland there is a small but growing Reform organization and it is vying for official recognition.

 

         It was recently announced that Poland’s Reform community is planning to apply for formal Government recognition. If accepted, the community would be eligible for State Support.

 

         Recognition of the newly formed Beit Polska could also mean that the group would benefit from the slow trickle of compensation for community property confiscated by Poland during the Communist era. Compensation and return of property began several years ago, but a Government Commission reviewing restitution may spend at least another decade deciding cases, participants have said.

 

         Poland’s Jewish community currently is dominated by the Union of Jewish Religious Communities in Poland, which is governed by Orthodox principles, although many of its members are not observant.

 

         Some argue that before the Shoah the Reform movement was almost non-existent in Poland. The so-called Reform Synagogue on Tolomaski Street was called Reform because the rav gave his speeches in Polish and not in Yiddish.

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/columns/yom-hashoah-in-poland/2008/05/07/

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