Photo Credit: The Kincaidibles
Jewish Agency rally against antisemitism, January 5, 2020.

Antisemitism persists in the EU, affecting Jews both online and offline, according to alarming insights from the latest survey by the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). According to the independent center for promoting and protecting human rights in the EU, concerns over their safety and frequent experiences of harassment have forced many to conceal their Jewish identity (Download: Jewish People’s Experiences and Perceptions of Antisemitism).

The EU and some of its Member States have put in place measures and action plans to tackle antisemitism, and the FRA stresses that EU countries “must build on these efforts to ensure Jews can live their lives with dignity, free from hate and fear. This is especially important given the impact that the ongoing conflict in the Middle East has had on Jewish communities in Europe.”


FRA’s third survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in the EU reveals their experiences and perceptions of antisemitism, and shows the obstacles they face in living an openly Jewish life.

The survey covers Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, and Sweden where around 96% of the EU’s estimated Jewish population live. Almost 8,000 Jews aged 16 or over participated in the online survey from January to June 2023. This is the third survey of its kind, following those of 2013 and 2018.

The survey pre-dates the Hamas attacks on 7 October 2023 and Israel’s military response in Gaza. However, the report includes information about antisemitism collected from 12 Jewish community organizations more recently. Jewish people have experienced more antisemitic incidents since October 2023, with some organizations reporting an increase of more than 400%.

The survey results point to:

  • Rising antisemitism: 80% of respondents feel that antisemitism has grown in their country in the five years before the survey.
  • High levels of antisemitism online: 90% of respondents encountered antisemitism online in the year before the survey.
  • Antisemitism in the public sphere: in the year before the survey, 56% of respondents encountered offline antisemitism from people they know and 51% in the media.
  • Harassment: 37% say they were harassed because they are Jewish in the year before the survey. Most of them experienced harassment multiple times. Antisemitic harassment and violence mostly take place in streets, parks, or shops.
  • Safety and security concerns: Most respondents continue to worry for their own (53%) and their family’s (60%) safety and security. Over the years, FRA research has shown that antisemitism tends to increase in times of tension in the Middle East. In this survey, 75% feel that people hold them responsible for the Israeli government’s actions because they are Jewish.
  • Hidden lives: 76% hide their Jewish identity at least occasionally and 34% avoid Jewish events or sites because they do not feel safe. As a reaction to online antisemitism, 24% avoid posting content that would identify them as Jewish, 23% say that they limited their participation in online discussions, and 16% reduced their use of certain platforms, websites, or services.

FRA Director Sirpa Rautio concluded:

“Europe is witnessing a wave of antisemitism, partly driven by the conflict in the Middle East. This severely limits Jewish people’s ability to live in safety and with dignity. We need to build on existing laws and strategies to protect communities from all forms of hate and intolerance, online as well as offline. In an increasingly polarized society, we urgently need to spread the message of tolerance and ensure respect for the fundamental rights and freedoms of all.”

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