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Yom Kippur

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Weekly Luach - Shabbat Shalom

Photo Credit: Jewish Press

Vol. LXIV No. 37                                5774
New York City
September 13, 2013 – 9 Tishrei 5774
6:48 p.m. NYC E.D.T.

Sabbath Ends: 7:52 p.m. NYC E.D.T.
Sabbath Ends: Rabbenu Tam 8:19 p.m. NYC E.D.T.
Weekly Reading: Yom Kippur (see below)
Weekly Haftara: Yom Kippur (see below)
Daf Yomi: Pesachim 85
Mishna Yomit: Shevuos 7:2-3
Halacha Yomit: Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayyim 302:7-9
Rambam Yomi: Hilchos She’ar Avos haTum’ah chap. 3-5
Earliest time for Tallis and Tefillin: 5:45 a.m. NYC E.D.T.
Sunrise: 6:34 a.m. NYC E.D.T.
Latest Kerias Shema: 9:43 a.m. NYC E.D.T.
Sunset: 7:07 p.m. NYC E.D.T.

The Fast of Yom Kippur falls on Shabbos.

Friday morning – Shacharis (Erev Yom Kippur): We recite the Selichos for Erev Yom Kippur, which consist of the shortest Selichos text of the year. We do not say Mizmor l’Soda nor Tachanun but we do say Avinu Malkeinu. After chatzos hayom (midday, 12:51 p.m. NYC E.D.T.) we immerse in the mikveh to ritually purify ourselves.

It is customary to partake of [a] festive meal[s] on Erev Yom Kippur since it is a positive precept to feast on that day (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayyim 604:1; see also the Taz ad loc. – quoting Berachos 8b – that one should reduce his Torah learning on that day so that he may fast well on Yom Kippur, and that “one who feasts and drinks on the 9th [of Tishrei] is considered as if he fasted on both the 9th and the 10th of Tishrei.”

Mincha is the usual weekday tefilla: Ashrei, half-Kaddish and the Shemoneh Esreh; before “Elokai, netzor leshoni me’ra” we insert the Viddui (confessional) whose text is found in the Machzor.

We are careful to complete the Seuda Mafsekes (the final meal before the fast) while it is still day in order to add from the mundane to the holy, le’hosif mechol al hakodesh (i.e., from the 9th day to the 10th day).

It is customary to light yahrzeit candles for the departed souls [of relatives] since we say Yizkor on Yom Kippur.

The beracha for lighting the candles (6:48 p.m. NYC E.D.T.) is “Le’hadlik ner shel Shabbos veshel Yom HaKippurim,” followed by Shehecheyanu.

Kol Nidrei: We arrive at the synagogue early and don both kittel and tallis. (If one dons the tallis before sunset, he recites the blessing “le’his’atef batzitzis.”)

We remove the Torah scroll from the Ark and the Chazzan, flanked by two of the congregation’s leaders, intones the Kol Nidrei prayer. The Chazzan recites the Shehecheyanu, which the congregation says with him in an undertone (except for those who recited the Shehecheyanu at home when lighting the candles).

Kabbalas Shabbos: we say Mizmor Shir LeYom HaShabbos, Hashem Malach, followed by Mourner’s Kaddish (Nusach Sefarad start with Mizmor LeDavid, and recite the first two stanzas and last two stanzas of Lechah Dodi, and then continue like Nusach Ashkenaz above.)

Maariv: We follow the text of the Machzor. At Kerias Shema we say “Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso” aloud (on this day we are likened to the angels who praise Hashem with these words), concluding with VeShamru and Ki Bayom Hazeh. Then the Chazzan says half-Kaddish and we recite the Shemoneh Esreh. We are careful to include all Shabbos references in the Shemoneh Esreh. Before “Elokai, netzor leshoni me’ra” we add the Viddui.

Following the Shemoneh Esreh, Vayechulu, Magen Avos,  the Chazzan and congregation chant various Piyyutim and recite the Viddui. We conclude with Kaddish Tiskabbel, Aleinu, LeDavid Hashem Ori and their respective Kaddish recitations (Nusach Sefarad say LeDavid Mizmor following the Shemoneh Esreh and then continue with Piyyutim as above.)

When we wake up in the morning we perform Netilas Yadayim by washing our fingers up to the knuckles only.

Shacharis: We don the kittel and the tallis and say the scheduled tefillos and Korbanos, followed by Kaddish DeRabbanan. We recite Pesukei DeZimra and Nishmas slowly and with concentration. The Chazzan who serves as the Ba’al Shacharis starts with “HaMelech” and continues through Yishtabach (most congregations add Shir Hama’alos) and half-Kaddish. In birkas Kerias Shema we substitute HaMeir with Hakol Yoducha, Kel Adon and LaKel Asher Shavas, since it is also Shabbos. At Kerias Shema, Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso is again said aloud, like last night. The Shacharis Shemoneh Esreh follows with all Shabbos references included, with the Viddui before “Elokai, netzor leshoni me’ra.”

In the Chazzan’s repetition we respond to Kedusha and say the Piyyutim, Selichos and Viddui. We conclude with Kaddish Tiskabbel.

                        We remove two Sifrei Torah from the Ark. After “Va’yehi binso’a ha’aron” we do not say the 13 Middos and Ribbono shel Olam, but continue with Shema, Echad Elokeinu (we conclude the phrase with “Kadosh Ve’nora Shemo”) and Gadlu.

                        We read in Parashas Acharei Mos (Vayikra 16:1-34) and call up 7 aliyos. We place the second scroll next to the first one and the Reader (ba’al keria) says half-Kaddish. The next aliya is Maftir, which is read from Parashas Pinchas (Bamidbar 29:7-11). The Haftara is from Isaiah (57:14-58:14), “Ve’amar solu solu.” The reader of the Haftara concludes with four berachos, and in the last beracha, Al HaTorah, all the references for Shabbos and Yom Kippur are included. This beracha also has a longer conclusion (like the conclusion of the Kedushas Hayom blessing in the Yom Kippur Shemoneh Esreh).

It is customary in most congregations to schedule an appeal prior to the recital of Yizkor for the departed souls, as the text clearly states, “in the merit that I will give charity.” During the Yizkor service the covered Torah scrolls remain on the Bimah. At the conclusion of Yizkor it is customary for the gabbai to recite a prayer on behalf of the rav of the congregation.

We then say Av HaRachamim, Ashrei, Yehallelu, etc., and return the Torah scrolls to the Ark.

Mussaf: The congregation sits silently while the Chazzan recites the special tefillaHineni He’ani” with emotion and trepidation, pleading on behalf of the congregants, “Your people Israel, who have sent me.” The second part of this tefilla,Kel Melech Ne’eman,” is a personal prayer in which the Chazzan asks, among other things, that his voice “be sweet … pleasant and strong …”

The Chazzan recites half-Kaddish and all say the Shemoneh Esreh (we include all Shabbos references) as found in the Machzor, with the addition of the Viddui.

In the Chazzan’s repetition we add many Piyyutim and special tefillos, both before Kedusha and after. In the course of some of these prayers the Aron Hakodesh is opened numerous times. The Shemoneh Esreh repetition includes the Avoda (a description of the Yom Kippur Temple service of the Kohen Gadol). Nusach Ashkenaz generally say “Amitz Ko’ach” whereas Sefarad say “Ata Konanta,” but some Ashkenaz congregations use the “Ata Konanta” text. The Avoda is followed by the confessional. At Retzeh the Kohanim prepare to duchan (their hands having been washed – to the knuckles only – by the Levi’im, or, in their absence, by the firstborn).

The Chazzan continues with Kaddish Tiskabbel, which serves as the conclusion of Mussaf. (We do not say Ein Ke’Elokeinu or Aleinu at this point – Aleinu having been said before, in the Amida.)

Mincha: We immediately proceed with “Va’yehi binso’a ha’aron” and remove a Sefer Torah from the Ark. We call three aliyos (Kohen, Levi, Yisrael). It is traditional for the three aliyos to be sold, especially the last one, which serves as Maftir. We read in Parashas Acharei Mos (Vayikra 18:1-30). The Maftir then reads the entire Book of  Jonah (1:1-4:11) for the Haftara. He concludes with Birkas HaTorah (we do not say “Al HaTorah” at Mincha).

We return the Sefer Torah to the Ark, the Chazzan recites half-Kaddish and all say the Shemoneh Esreh (with all Shabbos references included) as found in the Machzor, adding the Viddui before “Elokai, netzor leshoni me’ra.”

In the Chazzan’s repetition, Selichos and the confessional are added after Ya’aleh VeYavo. The Chazzan continues with Kedushas Hayom, etc., and at the conclusion he recites Kaddish Tiskabbel.

Ne’ilah: We now begin the fifth and final prayer, the intense prayer that is the climax of Yom Kippur – Ne’ilah (lit. “closure”). We say Ashrei and U’va LeTziyyon, and the Chazzan recites half-Kaddish. Then all say the Ne’ilah Shemoneh Esreh as found in our Machzor, praying that every request for a good judgment be granted, and substitute every mention of “kesiva” (inscription) with “chasima” (sealing), concluding with an abbreviated confessional.

During the Chazzan’s repetition we recite the 13 Middos numerous times, repeat the abbreviated confessional, and upon concluding we all say Avinu Malkenu (even though it is Shabbos).

The Chazzan, and the congregation after him, says “Shema Yisrael” aloud. This is followed by “Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso” aloud three times (by the Chazzan and then the congregation) and finally “Hashem Hu HaElokim” aloud seven times (by the Chazzan and then the congregation).

The Chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel until “De’amiran be’alma ve’imru Amen,” and the shofar is blown. Kaddish is then concluded.

Weekday Maariv: We add Ata Chonantanu. At the conclusion of Maariv, Kaddish Tiskabbel, then Kaddish Yasom, LeDavid Hashem Ori and Kaddish Yasom.

If the sky is clear, we recite Kiddush Levana.

Following Havdala (even though it is also Motzaei Shabbos,it is still customary to light the havdala from a pre-existing flame- Mateh Efraim) at home and breaking our fast (the fast ends N.Y.C. 7:52 p.m. E.D.T.), we start with the construction of the sukkah.

Since Tachanun would not be said on most of the days of this month, we do not resume saying Tachanun until the 2nd day of Cheshvan.

Wednesday, erev Sukkos: Aside from our erev Yom Tov preparations, we have to make sure that the sukkah we will use is finished and ready to accommodate us for fulfilling the mitzvah of eating and sleeping in the sukkah. This is also the last opportunity to acquire the Four Species: esrog, lulav, hadassim and aravos. These should preferably be of exceptional quality–mehudarim–but have to satisfy, at the very least, the minimum requirements qualifying them as kosher to fulfill the mitzvah (see Orach Chayyim 645-650, Hilchot Lulav).

Since Shabbos immediately follows the 2 days of Yom Tov, we prepare an Eruv Tavshilin (2 cooked foods – usually an egg and a challah or matza) which we put aside to be eaten on Shabbos. This allows us to cook and bake food on the second day of Yom Tov for Shabbos.

We light candles at 6:41 p.m. NYC E.D.T., that is, 18 minutes before shekiah (sunset), and recite Lehadlik ner shel Yom Tov as well as Shehecheyanu.

                        Mincha: Usual weekday tefilla. Maariv: Usual service for Yom Tov, as found in the Machzor. The Shemoneh Esreh is that of Shalosh Regalim. At the conclusion of the Shemoneh Esreh the Chazzan says Kaddish Tiskabbel, Aleinu, LeDavid Hashem Ori (Sefarad have said LeDavid Hashem Ori following Mincha) and their respective Mourner’s Kaddish recitations.

In congregations where it is the custom to recite Kiddush in the synagogue after Maariv, Kiddush can only be publicly recited in synagogue’s sukkah where available.

Eating in the sukkah: Upon returning home we do not tarry but go straight to the sukkah (lest it rain later on). We recite the appropriate Ushpizin (lit. guests’ invitation) to welcome to our sukkah the seven faithful shepherds of the people of Israel – Avraham, Yitzhak, Yaakov, Yosef, Moshe, Aharon and David Hamelech. On each of the seven days one of them is the guest of honor leading the others, starting with our Patriarch Avraham on the first night. We recite the Kiddush of Yom Tov. We say four berachos: Borei pri hagafen, Mekaddesh Yisrael ve’hazemanim, Leishev basukkah, and Shehecheyanu.

On the first night one is duty-bound to eat in the sukkah even if it involves tza’ar (pain). This does not apply on the other nights and days, when one who is extremely uncomfortable (due to rain, or extreme cold, etc.) is relieved of this obligation (see Orach Chayyim 640:4 and Rema ad loc., who qualifies this halacha; see also Rema 639:2 regarding sleeping in the sukkah).

If it rains on the first evening (and the rain is such that it is not likely to stop), we make Kiddush in the sukkah, we wash (for bread) and eat a kezayit (olive-size) piece of challah in the sukkah, and then return to the house to eat the rest of the meal. (Commenting on a discussion regarding how long one is required to wait for the rain to stop, the Mishna Berura, O.C. 639:5, notes that it is proper to wait no longer than until midnight.)

During the seven days of Sukkos we say Ya’aleh VeYavo and HaRachaman hu yakim lanu es sukkahs David hanofales in Birkas Hamazon. Each meal (or snack) requires the blessing of Leishev basukkah as well as the appropriate berachos for the various foods.

Shacharis, Thursday morning: Pesukei DeZimra, and Chazzan chants from “HaKel.” Kerias Shema follows the weekday pattern, then the silent Shemoneh Esreh of Shalosh Regalim, followed by the Chazzan’s repetition.

Lulav and Esrog: We take the lulav (to which 3 hadassim are bound on the right side and 2 aravos on the left side – see Mishna Berura, Orach Chayyim 651:1) in our right hand and the esrog (upside down, the pittam facing downside) in our left hand and recite the beracha, Al netilas lulav…in a manner oveir le’asiyasan, that is, before we have physically accomplished the taking of the lulav and esrog. We next recite Shehecheyanu with the esrog in an upright position (with the pittam facing upward) and wave the lulav in six directions (see chart detailing the various minhagim as to the number and sequence of wavings).

We recite Hallel while holding the lulav and esrog, waving at Hodu and Ana Hashem (see chart). At the conclusion of Hallel some congregations (Nusach Sefarad and some Ashkenaz) say Hoshanos while circling the Bimah (Lema’an Amitach, as found in the Machzor). We put away the lulav and esrog and the Chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel.

We remove two Torah scrolls from the Ark. In the first we read from Parashas Emor (Vayikra 22:26-23:44) and call up five aliyos. In the second scroll the Maftir reads from Parashas Pinchas (Bamidbar 29:12-16). The Haftara is Hineh yom ba (Zechariah 14:1-21).

After the Birkos HaHaftara the Chazzan chants Kah Keili, followed by Ashrei and Yehallelu, and we return the Torah scrolls to the Ark. The Chazzan recites half-Kaddish.

Mussaf: All say the silent Shemoneh Esreh of Shalosh Regalim. The Kohanim go up to duchan during the Chazzan’s repetition, and this time we do say Ribbono shel Olam and Yehi Ratzon.. The Chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel. Most Nusach Ashkenaz congregations say Hoshanos at this point (see Shacharis). We conclude the service with Ein Ke’Elokeinu, Aleinu (Nusach Ashkenaz now add Shir Shel Yom –  Hayom Yom Chamishi – and LeDavid Hashem Ori) and their respective Kaddish recitations. Some congregations conclude with An’im Zemiros and Mourner’s Kaddish.

Sukkah: The text for the daytime Kiddush is: Eleh Mo’adei, Va’yedabber Moshe, followed by the blessings of Borei pri hagafen (on wine) and Leishev basukkah.

Mincha: Ashrei, U’va LeTziyyon, the Chazzan recites half-Kaddish, and all say the silent Shemoneh Esreh of Shalosh Regalim. Following the repetition, the Chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel and we conclude with Aleinu and Mourner’s Kaddish.

Candle Lighting, 2nd day of Yom Tov: The earliest possible zeman is 45 minutes after sunset, which, on Thursday evening, is 7:43 p.m. NYC E.D.T. The berachos for candle lighting are: Lehadlik ner shel Yom Tov and Shehecheyanu. The Gaon Rabbi Eliyahu Henkin zt”l rules that it is preferable to wait with candle lighting as well as all preparations for Yom Tov a full 72 minutes after sunset – 8:10 p.m. NYC E.D.T., or a minimum of 60 minutes after sunset, that is, 7:58 p.m. NYC E.D.T.

Maariv (the second evening of Sukkos): Usual tefilla of Yom Tov as found in the Machzor, followed by Kaddish Tiskabbel by the Chazzan, Ve’yiten Lecha. We conclude with Aleinu, LeDavid Hashem Ori and their respective Mourner’s Kaddish recitations.

Sukkah: We recite the Ushpizin (our Patriarch Yitzhak leads the honored guests on the second night). Kiddush of Yom Tov, Shehecheyanu and conclude with the blessing of Leishev basukkah.

Shacharis, 2nd day of Yom Tov – see next week’s Luach.

The following chapters of Tehillim are being recited by many congregations and Yeshivos for our brothers and sisters in Eretz Yisrael: Chapter 83, 130, 142 – Y.K.

Rabbi Yaakov Klass

About the Author: Rabbi Yaakov Klass, rav of Congregation K’hal Bnei Matisyahu in Flatbush, Brooklyn, is Torah Editor of The Jewish Press. He can be contacted at yklass@jewishpress.com.

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