Vol. LXVII No. 40 5778
New York City
CANDLE LIGHTING TIME
October 6, 2017 – 16 Tishrei 5775
6:11 p.m. NYC E.D.T.
Sabbath Ends: 7:09 p.m. NYC E.D.T.
Sabbath Ends: Rabbenu Tam 7:40 p.m. NYC E.D.T.
Weekly Reading: Chol Hamo’ed Sukkos (see below)
Weekly Haftara: Chol Hamo’ed Sukkos (see below)
Daf Yomi: Sanhedrin 82
Mishna Yomit: Sukkah 2:8-9
Halacha Yomit: Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayyim 240:9-11
Rambam Yomi: Hilchos De’os chap. 6 – Hilchos Talmud Torah chap.1
Earliest time for Tallis and Tefillin: 6:08 a.m. NYC E.D.T.
Sunrise: 6:57 a.m. NYC E.D.T.
Latest Kerias Shema: 9:50 a.m. NYC E.D.T.
Sunset: 6:29 p.m. NYC E.D.T.
Friday, second day of Yom Tov: Shacharis: Pesukei DeZimra, and chazzan chants from HaKel. Kerias Shema follows the weekday pattern, then the silent Shemoneh Esreh of Shalosh Regalim, followed by the chazzan’s repetition.
Lulav and Esrog: We take the lulav (to which 3 hadassim are bound on the right side and 2 aravos on the left side – see Mishna Berura, Orach Chayyim 651:1) in our right hand and the esrog (upside down, the pittam facing downside) in our left hand and recite the beracha: Al netilas lulav…in a manner oveir le’asiyasan, that is, before we have physically accomplished the taking of the lulav and esrog, we then return the esrog, to an upright position (with the pittam facing upward) and wave the lulav in six directions (see chart in this issue detailing the various minhagim as to the number and sequence of wavings).
We recite Hallel while holding the lulav and esrog, waving at Hodu and Ana Hashem (see chart). At the conclusion of Hallel some congregations (Nusach Sefarad and some Ashkenaz) say Hoshanos while circling the Bimah (on the second day it is Even Shesiya, as found in the Machzor). We put away the lulav and esrog and the chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel.
We remove two Torah scrolls from the Ark. In the first we read from Parashas Emor (Vayikra 22:26-23:44) and call up five aliyos. In the second scroll the Maftir reads from Parashas Pinchas (Bamidbar 29:12-16). The Haftara is Va’yikahalu el HaMelech (I Kings 8:2-21).
After the Birkos HaHaftara, the chazzan chants Kah Keili, followed by Ashrei and Yehallelu, and we return the Torah scrolls to the Ark. The chazzan recites half-Kaddish.
Mussaf: All say the silent Shemoneh Esreh of Shalosh Regalim. The Kohanim go up to duchan during the chazzan’s repetition, and we say Ribbono shel Olam and Yehi Ratzon. (Most Nusach Ashkenaz congregations say Hoshanos at this point – see Shacharis) The chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel. We conclude the service with Ein Ke’Elokenu, Aleinu (Nusach Ashkenaz now add Shir Shel Yom – Hayom Yom Shishi – LeDavid Hashem Ori) and their respective Kaddish recitations. Some congregations conclude with An’im Zemiros followed by Mourner’s Kaddish.
Sukkah: The text for the daytime Kiddush is: “Eleh Mo’adei,” “Va’yedabber Moshe,” followed by the blessings of Borei pri hagafen (on wine) and Leishev basukkah.
Mincha: Ashrei, U’va LeTziyyon, the chazzan recites half-Kaddish, and all say the silent Shemoneh Esreh of Shalosh Regalim. Following the repetition, the chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel and we conclude with Aleinu and Mourner’s Kaddish.
As today is erev Shabbos and we have made our eruv tavshilin prior to Yom Tov, we make all necessary preparations for Shabbos on Yom Tov, prior to Shabbos. We must take care not to light Shabbos candles (from an existing flame) later than the times listed for each locality – as opposed to Yom Tov (at 6:11 p.m. E.D.T., N.Y.C.). Negligence in this regard can lead to an Issur de’Oraitha – a Biblical violation.
Kabbalas Shabbos, 1st day Chol Hamo’ed. We do not say Lechu Neranena but greet the Sabbath with an abridged liturgy. Nusach Ashkenaz begin with Mizmor Shir; Nusach Sefarad include a longer text, beginning at Mizmor LeDavid, and the last two stanzas of Lechah Dodi, then Mizmor Shir. Maariv of Shabbos follows with inclusion of Ya’aleh VeYavo, Vayechulu, Birkas Me’ein Sheva, Kaddish Tiskabbel. We conclude with Aleinu, LeDavid Hashem Ori and their respective Mourner’s Kaddish recitations.
Sukkah: We recite the Ushpizin (our Patriarch Yaakov leads the honored guests on the 3rd night). Kiddush of Shabbos, concluding with the blessing of Leishev basukkah.
Shabbos morning: Shacharis for Shabbos with inclusion of Ya’aleh VeYavo, whole Hallel – we do not take the lulav and esrog as it is Shabbos. At the conclusion of Hallel some congregations (Nusach Sefarad and some Ashkenaz) say Hoshanos – Om Netzora (we do not circle the Bimah as it is Shabbos) – Kaddish Tiskabbel. We read Koheles, preferably from a klaf , a scroll – but we do not make a beracha over this reading – followed by Mourner’s Kaddish. We remove two Sifrei Torah from the Ark. In the first scroll we call seven Aliyos and we read in Parashas Ki Tissa (Shemos 33:12-34:26) from “Re’eh ata omer” until “Lo sevashel ge’di bachalev immo. For Maftir we read Numbers 29:17-22, from “U’vayom Hasheni” until “Ve’nikah.” We read the Haftara, Ve’haya bayom hahu (Ezekiel 38:18-39:16).
We follow with Yekum Purkan, Ashrei. We return the Torah scrolls to the Ark and the chazzan says half-Kaddish.
Mussaf for Festivals with mention of Shabbos. We include mention of Shabbos in chazzan’s repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh as well as Hoshanos (see Shacharis – most Ashkenaz congregations say it at the conclusion of Mussaf) and conclude with Kaddish Tiskabbel, Ein KeElokeinu, Aleinu, Shir shel Yom, LeDavid Hashem Ori and their respective Kaddish recitations. Kiddush of Shabbos, we add Leishev basukkah. We wash for the Shabbos Seuda. Birkas HaMazon includes Retzeh and Ya’aleh VeYavo.
Mincha for Shabbos: Ashrei, U’va LeTziyyon, chazzan recites half-Kaddish – we remove a Torah scroll from the Ark (Va’yehi Binso’a). We call up three Aliyos and read Parashas Vezos HaBeracha (Deuteronomy 33:1-17). We return the scroll to the Ark and the chazzan recites half-Kaddish. All say the Shemoneh Esreh of Shabbos with Ya’aleh VeYavo, also in chazzan’s repetition. We do not say Tzidkas’cha and chazzan concludes with Kaddish Tiskabbel, Aleinu and finally the Mourner’s Kaddish. (As it is Shabbos, we wash for the Seuda Shelishis, which we eat in the sukkah. We include Retzeh and Ya’aleh VeYavo in Birkas Hamazon.
Maariv: As usual on Motza’ei Shabbos, we say Ata Chonantanu. We include Ya’aleh VeYavo. After Kaddish Tiskabbel (we do not say Vi’yehi No’am and Ve’ata Kadosh) we say Aleinu, LeDavid Hashem Ori and their respective Kaddish recitations. Havdala is in the sukkah, concluding with the blessing of Leishev basukkah.
Sunday morning, 2nd day of Chol Hamo’ed, Shacharis: some don tefillin and others do not, each according to his custom – but without a beracha – and yet others recite the blessing in a whisper (see Rema, Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayyim 31:2; also Mishna Berura ad loc. s.v. She’ein mevarchim for advisable procedure.)
Usual weekday Shemoneh Esreh with Ya’aleh VeYavo and Ya’aleh VeYavo again in chazzan’s repetition.
We now take the lulav and esrog (same procedure as on the first two days – recite the blessing Al netilas lulav (see chart for the various minhagim at the waving of the lulav). We say whole Hallel. At the conclusion some congregations (Nusach Sefarad and some Ashkenaz) recite Hoshanos – on the third day it is E’eroch Shu’i. We circle the Bimah, Kaddish Tiskabbel.
We remove a Torah scroll from the Ark and read in Parashas Pinchas (Numbers 29:20-28), “U’vayom HaShelishi,” until “Ve’Niskah.” We call 4 Aliyos. We repeat “U’vayom HaShelishi,” “Uvayom HaRevi’i for the 4th Aliyah). The ba’al keriah says half- Kaddish. We return the scroll to the Ark, Yehallelu, Ashrei U’Va LeTziyyon, half-Kaddish.
Mussaf of Festivals – we add U’vayom haShelishi, Uminchasam… Following the Amidah repetition, Hoshanos (see Shacharis – most Ashkenaz congregations say it at the conclusion of Mussaf), Kaddish Tiskabbel. We conclude with Aleinu, Shir shel Yom, LeDavid HaShem Ori and their respective Kaddish recitations.
Mincha is usual weekday Shemoneh Esreh with inclusion of Ya’aleh VeYavo. At the conclusion of repetition, Kaddish Tiskabbel, Aleinu, Mourner’s Kaddish.
Maariv is usual weekday tefilla with inclusion of Ya’aleh VeYavo in the Shemoneh Esreh. At the conclusion – Kaddish Tiskabbel, Aleinu, Le David Hashem Ori and their respective Kaddish recitations.
Monday morning, 3rd day of Chol Hamo’ed: all tefillos are the same as yesterday, with the exception of Hoshanos – we start with Kel Lemosha’os followed by Torah reading (Numbers 29:23-31) – Mussaf ,U’vayom HaRevi’i.
Tuesday morning, 4th day of Chol Hamo’ed: all tefillos are the same as yesterday with the exception of Hoshanos – we start with Adon Hamoshia followed by Torah reading (Numbers 29:26:34).
Wednesday is Hoshana Rabbah. According to the Shulcham Aruch (Orach Chayyim 664) we say many mizmorim on Hoshana Rabbah. We say Pesukei DeZimra as we do on Shabbos. Rema notes that we do not say Nishmas but we do say the Shabbos and Yom Tov text of Ein kamocha, Shema Yisrael. We add Ribbono Shel Olam at the removal of the Sifrei Torah from the Ark.
We also treat this day with some of the same gravity as Yom Kippur. Some who are scrupulous immerse themselves in a mikveh. The chazzan dons a kittel. The Mishna Berura (ad loc.) explains that donning the kittel indicates that this day is the point at which the seal is affixed on our judgment. Thus some are accustomed to greet one another until Hoshana Rabbah with Gemar Chasima Tova.
In the Pesukei DeZimra, We say Mizmor LeToda then Lam’natzeach Mizmor L’David and all the mizmorim that follow, the same text as on Shabbos and Yom Tov, however do not say Nishmas – but continue straight to Yishtabach, which is followed by half-Kaddish. Then some congregations say Shir Hama’alos mima’amakim while the Aron HaKodesh is open. Chazzan then says Barechu and congregation responds.
Birchas Kerias Shema is weekday text, followed by the silent Shemoneh Esreh, usual weekday Shacharis with Ya’aleh VeYavo and mention of Sukkos. Following the chazzan’s repetition we take the lulav and esrog in hand for the last time and recite the blessing Al netilas lulav and we wave in all six directions – the four compass points and up and down in the order of one’s custom. We hold the Four Species in our hand as we recite the whole Hallel. At Hodu and Ana Hashem we again wave the lulav in the customary manner.
Some congregations (Nusach Sefarad and some Ashkenaz) are accustomed to say Hoshanos after Hallel while others (most Ashkenaz) say it following Mussaf. For Hoshanos we remove all the Sifrei Torah from the Ark, keep the Four Species in our hand, and continue to recite the Hoshanos, but on this last day we surround the bimah not once as we do on each day of Sukkos but seven times – saying all the Hoshanos we said on the previous days.
When we reach Ta’aneh Emunim, we put away the Four Species and take the “willow branches” (the chabata, which is a bunch of 5 willows bound together). At the conclusion of Hoshanos we bang the chabata on the ground. Chazzan then recites Kaddish Tiskabbel. The congregation says Shir shel Yom and LeDavid Hashem Ori, followed by respective Mourner’s Kaddish recitations.
We remove one Sefer Torah from the Ark and we call 4 aliyos (Kohen, Levi, Yisrael, Yisrael). We read in Parashas Pinchas (Numbers 29:26-34). The 4th aliyah repeats verses 29:29-34.
We then Ashrei U’va’letziyon, Ye’hallelu as we return the Sefer Torah to the Ark and chazzan recites half-Kaddish. We say the silent Shemoneh Esreh of Mussaf of Shalosh Regalim. Following the repetition, we say the Hoshanos (most Ashkenaz – see above for procedure.) following which the chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel.
We then conclude with [most Ashkenaz] Ein Ke’Elokeinu, followed by KaddishD’rabbanan, then Aleinu, Shir shel Yom, LeDavid Hashem Ori and their respective Mourner’s Kaddish recitations.
Wednesday Erev Yom Tov: We make an eruv tavshilin in order to be able to prepare food for the Sabbath on Yom Tov.
As we will recite Yizkor on Shemini Atzeres we light candles for the departed souls before we light the Yom Tov candles which are to be lit eighteen minutes before Shekia (sunset), at 6:03 p.m. (N.Y.C. E.D.T.)
Mincha: usual erev Yom Tov tefilla – weekday Shemoneh Esreh with mention of Sukkos. Following chazzan’s repetition, Kaddish Tiskabbel, then Aleinu (Nusach Sefarad say LeDavid Hashem Ori), followed by Mourner’s Kaddish.
Maariv: usual tefilla of Shalosh Regalim. We add Va’yedabber Moshe, the Shalosh Regalim and we make mention of Shemini Atzeres. Kaddish Tiskabbel, Aleinu and LeDavid Hashem Ori. (Nusach Sefarad said LeDavid, following Mincha) and Mourner’s Kaddish recitals.
Minhag Sefarad make the hakafos on the night of Shemini Atzeres as well as on the night of Simchas Torah.
Kiddush is Yom Tov text of Shalosh Regalim: Asher bachar banu: Mekkadesh Yisrael VeHazemanim. Since Shemini Atzeres is considered a new Yom Tov, we add the beracha of Shehecheyanu. However, though most still eat in the sukkah because of sefeka deyoma (lit. “a doubt regarding the day” – as in this regard only, the eighth day is possibly the seventh day.) Regarding the other days of Sukkos, in reference to the mention or their sacrifices in both the Torah reading and the Shemoneh Esreh of Mussaf, we treat each day with a “doubt regarding the day.” But we do not say the blessing Leishev basukkah as we no longer refer to this Yom Tov as Sukkos. We do continue the custom of replacing the salt with honey, into which we dip our challah at the blessing of Hamotzi.
Thursday morning: Shacharis as usual with the following exceptions: chazzan begins at HaKel instead of at Shochen Ad. The Shemoneh Esreh is that of Shalosh Regalim. Following chazzan’s repetition we say the entire Hallel followed by Kaddish Tiskabbel. (Nusach Sefarad then proceed with Shir shel Yom, LeDavid Hashem Ori and their respective Kaddish recitations.)
We remove two Sifrei Torah from the Ark – we say the Thirteen Middos and Ribbono Shel Olam.
We call 5 aliyos in the first sefer Torah and we read in Parashas Re’eh, from a Aser Te’aser” (Devarim 14:22 – 16:17). We place the second scroll next to the first and the ba’al keriah recites half-Kaddish. We call the Maftir. We read from the second scroll in Parashas Pinchas (Bamidbar 29:35-39; 30:1).
The Maftir reads the Haftara – Va’yehi kechalos Shlomo (I Kings 8:54-66; 9:1).
It is customary in many congregations to schedule a Yizkor appeal, in accordance with the text of the Yizkor prayer, “In merit of my vowing to give charity on his/her behalf.”
We recite Yizkor and Av HaRachamim, followed by Ashrei. We return the Sifrei Torah to the Ark. The chazzan dons a kittel and says half-Kaddish in the Nusach of Yamim Nora’im.
Before we begin the silent Shemoneh Esreh, the gabbai calls out “Mashiv Haruach U’morid Hageshem” so that we will include this phrase in our silent Shemoneh Esreh as well. (Nusach Sefarad first begin saying Mashiv Haruach U’morid Hageshem” at Mincha – and the chazzan’s repetition at Mussaf serves as the reminder.)
In chazzan’s repetition he chants the Prayer for Rain in its special nusach. We pray for the blessing of rain in its proper season. At “Ve’se’arev” the kohanim ascend to the duchan. (The Levi’im, or where none are available, the firstborn, have washed the priests’ hands). The congregation say Ribbono Shel Olam and Yehi Ratzon. The chazzan then recites Kaddish Tiskabbel.
Service concludes with Ein KeElokeinu, Aleinu, Shir shel Yom, and LeDavid Hashem Ori, (which Nusach Sefarad already said at Shacharis, following Hallel) and their respective Kaddish recitations. Some congregations conclude with An’im Zemiros followed by Mourner’s Kaddish.
Mincha: Ashrei, U’va LeTziyyon, half-Kaddish. All then say the silent Shemoneh Esreh (of Shalosh Regalim). We are careful to include Mashiv Haruach U’morid Hagashem in the beracha of Mechayyeh Hameisim. In case one forgot to include this phrase: If he realized it before he uttered the beracha of Ata Kadosh – he is to include it there and then. If, however, he already said Ata Kadosh, he repeats from the beginning of the Amidah. According to Rema (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayyim 114:9), in order not to say a blessing in vain, it is proper to repeat Mashiv Haruach U’morid Hageshem 90 times.
The Mishna Berura (ad loc.) explains: One says … Rav lehoshia, Mashiv Haruach U’morid Hageshem 90 times. He quotes the Chasam Sofer (Responsa Vol. I 9:20) as well, who opines that one repeats it 103 times, but he would repeat it only in the case one said it less than 90 times.
Thursday, the second night of Yom Tov – which we now commonly refer to as Simchas Torah (due to our joy at completing the yearly Torah reading cycle) – we are not allowed to make any preparations for Yom Tov before we light candles, (from an existing flame) 45 minutes after sunset, at 7:02 p.m. N.Y.C. E.D.T. (according to Piskei Rav Henkin, zt”l, the zeman is preferably 72 minutes after sunset, at 7:33 p.m. N.Y.C. E.D.T. or at the very least 60 minutes after sunset, at 7:21 p.m. N.Y.C. E.D.T.) and then we can commence all preparations. When lighting candles we recite Lehadlik ner shel Yom Tov and Shehecheyanu.
Maariv is usual tefilla of Yom Tov. We end the Kerias Shema prayer with U’feros… We say Va’yedabber Moshe. Chazzan recites half-Kaddish, then all say the silent Shemoneh Esreh. We refer to the Yom Tov in the Shalosh Regalim text as Yom Shemini Ha’atzeres. Following that the chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel.
It is customary, before the recital of Ata Horeisa, to “sell” this right for pledges to charity. The purchaser then honors individuals with the recitation of individual pesukim in Ata Horeisa. Most congregations also sell all the other honors associated with Simchas Torah. It is customary to sell the honors of Maftir and the three Hagbahos and gelillos, and some sell the opening and closing of the Ark as well. With all the Sifrei Torah removed from the Ark, we now begin the Hakafos circling of the bimah – we go around it seven times in joyous dance.
At the conclusion of Hakafos we return all but one Sefer Torah to the Ark. We call three aliyos and we read from Vezos HaBeracha (Devarim 31:1-26). (Some congregations call up five people.)
The ba’al keriah then says half-Kaddish. We return the Sefer Torah to the Ark and we conclude with Aleinu and Mourner’s Kaddish. We no longer recite LeDavid Hashem Ori.
Kiddush is usual Shalosh Regalim Kiddush, with reference to Shemini Atzeres and Shehecheyanu.
We eat our festive se’uda in the house, as the second day of this Yom Tov in the Diaspora is considered like Shemini Atzeres in Eretz Yisrael – and is not treated as sefeka deyoma, a doubtful day.
Shacharis, 2nd day Yom Tov – see next week’s luach.
We do not say Tachanun until after Rosh Chodesh (2 Marcheshvan).
The following chapters of Tehillim are being recited by many congregations and Yeshivos for our brothers and sisters in Eretz Yisrael: Chapter 83, 130, 142 – Y.K.