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Rabbi Avi Weiss

Notified that his father is sick, Yosef takes his sons Ephraim and Menashe to see their grandfather. As they enter, Yaakov asks (Genesis 48:8), “Who are these?”

Having already been in Egypt for 17 years, is it possible Yaakov didn’t know the identity of his grandsons?


Some commentators suggest a physical reason for Yaakov’s question. Bearing in mind that Yaakov could not see, he could not recognize his grandsons even as they stand before him.

Other commentators suggest that Yaakov’s question does not refer to his grandsons themselves but rather their progeny. Prophetically, Yaakov discerned that among the descendants of Ephraim and Menashe would be evil people. Yaakov asks, “Who are these?” – how is it possible that such evil men could come from good people like Ephraim and Menashe?

Other commentators insist that Yaakov asked “Who are these?” to precipitate a report from Yosef about the moral, spiritual, and religious progress of Ephraim and Menashe.

But there is another approach. Yaakov may not recognize his grandchildren because he has little relationship with them. This could be because Yosef rarely ever took them to Yaakov.

Yosef may have denied his father this relationship because of possible ill will toward Yaakov for having sent Yosef to his brothers to make peace, a plan that backfired. Upset with his father, Yosef never contacts him for 22 years and blocks his children from developing a close relationship with their grandfather.

Another suggestion: Maybe “Who are these?” is an existential question. Having grown up in Egypt, Ephraim and Menashe must have, on some level, assimilated into Egyptian society. Standing before Yaakov as Jews living in Egypt, Yaakov asks, “Who are these?” What he is really asking is, “Do my grandchildren identify themselves as Egyptians or Jews?”

Whichever way one approaches Yaakov’s question, one point is certain: Yaakov is the first person to be recorded in the Torah as interacting with his grandchildren on any level at all. Not only does he interact with them, he actually gives each of them a blessing. In fact, the blessing is so powerful that it becomes the standardized blessing of parents to children every Friday night. Placing our hands on our children, we say, “may God make you like Ephraim and Menashe” (Genesis 48:20).

A grandparent’s relationship to a child is on some level deeper than a parent/child relationship. Unencumbered by parental responsibility, a grandparent, blessed with wisdom and maturity of years, can powerfully bestow blessings upon grandchildren. In a brief instant, a grandparent asks “Who are these?” not so much as a question but as an expression of thanksgiving to God for having been blessed with such glorious grandchildren.

Even if they are not specifically for grandchildren, may our lives be filled with many such utterances of “Who are these?” – expressions of thanks, awe, and wonder, regarding the incredible gifts given to us by the Creator.

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Rabbi Avi Weiss is founding president of Yeshivat Chovevei Torah and senior rabbi of the Hebrew Institute of Riverdale. His memoir of the Soviet Jewry movement, “Open Up the Iron Door,” was recently published by Toby Press.