Photo Credit: Diocese of Gallup
Mass celebrated by Bishop James Wall.

A recent survey, conducted as part of an ongoing multi-year study exploring the attitudes of American Christians towards Jews, Israel, and the Israeli-PA Arab conflict, indicates that evangelical support for Israel is primarily influenced by factors such as age and Biblical knowledge. The findings suggest that the current conflict between Israel and Hamas in Gaza has not significantly altered the evangelical backing of Israel.

The study, which concurrently analyzes attitudes across mainline, evangelical, and Catholic communities, reveals that among various political, theological, sociological, and demographic factors considered, the belief that “God’s covenant with the Jewish people remains intact today” has the most significant influence on support for Israel. Respondents who hold this belief are nearly three times (180%) more likely to express strong support for Israel.


The second most powerful rationale across all three Christian communities is grounded in historical context rather than theological doctrine. Those who believe that “Jews need a state of their own after the Holocaust” are 122% more likely to firmly back Israel in the ongoing conflict.

The study compares three different time periods over the last six years (2018, 2021, and 2024), revealing the following about evangelicals:

  • Fewer evangelicals are viewing Israel through a traditional biblical lens, with a notable decrease in those adhering to the concept of the Abrahamic Covenant.
  • Core evangelical practices, such as church attendance and Bible reading, have experienced a decline. Previous studies have linked these religious practices to increased support for Israel.
  • The ongoing conflict has generated a negative perception of PA Arabs and Muslims among evangelicals. Comparative research shows a decreased image of Muslims, reduced support for an independent PA state, and a larger proportion of evangelicals blaming PA Arabs for the conflict. However, a significant segment attributed blame to both sides in the 2021 and 2024 Gaza wars.
  • In 2024, a higher number of evangelicals reported having some knowledge of the conflict compared to 2021. Researchers attribute this increase to greater news coverage of Israel in recent months.

Despite the earlier decline in support, the 2024 survey indicates that evangelical backing for Israel has stabilized since 2021. The findings suggest that while traditional biblical interpretations and religious practices may be waning, the current conflict and increased media attention have played a role in shaping evangelical attitudes toward Israel and the PA Arabs.

Catholics show the least support for Jewish interests and the highest acceptance of antisemitic tropes, the survey finds. Notably, Catholic views on these matters have remained relatively unchanged between 2022 and 2024, suggesting that the ongoing crisis has not significantly influenced Catholic opinions. This stability in attitudes contrasts with the shifts observed in other religious groups over the same period.

The survey was conducted by Dr. Motti Inbari, a professor of Jewish studies at UNC Pembroke, and Dr. Kirill Bumin, the Associate Dean of Metropolitan College and Director of Boston University Summer Term Programs. The study was carried out March 8-14, 2024, and included 2,033 self-identified Christian adults with a ±2.2 margin of error.  Partial funding was provided by Chosen People Ministries, the Alliance for the Peace of Jerusalem, and by both Jews and Christians seeking a better understanding of the conflict between Israel and Hamas, and concerned with the rising tide of antisemitism today.

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