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December 8, 2016 / 8 Kislev, 5777

Posts Tagged ‘Rabbi Miller’

Toldos: And They Called His Name Eisav

Thursday, November 24th, 2011

At a thing’s inception, it contains the potential for both good and bad. This applies also to our forefathers. The Torah’s description of the Avos may imply that, for example, Eisav was pre-ordained for wickedness. Rabbi Avigdor Miller, zt”l, explains that to the contrary, Yaakov and Eisav were each born with the potential for good and evil.

“And the first came forth ruddy all over like a hairy garment (25:25).”

This was a remarkable phenomenon. Eisav was covered with goatlike hair (27:16) to foretell one of two prophecies: either that he would have the boldness of a goat in the service of G-d, just as the he-goat is ready for battle and goes ahead of the flock; or that he would choose to behave like an animal that follows its eyes to fill its desires. Isaac believed in the first prophecy. But Eisav chose the second: when he was put to the test, he chose to follow the desire of his eyes rather than to keep the birthright.

The nations, exemplified by Eisav, choose this world; like the creatures that follow their instincts, they live solely to gratify the body. Jacob was entirely unlike the beasts: he was smooth and without hair, to emphasize Israel’s role as the true fulfillment of the human model that lives to serve not his passions but to serve Hashem. It is essential to understand that neither Eisav nor Jacob were born with foreordained righteousness or wickedness, for this would contradict the principle of Free Will which is a foundation of the Torah ideology. All prophetic omens that can be discerned in the birth of these two brothers could have become realized in more than one way. It was only subsequently, when each brother had chosen his way of life, that on looking back we can discern what the birth omens had foretold.

Eisav is derived from asah (“to make”), for Eisav was a made man from the beginning. He was ruddy and hairy, and this was apparently a portent of leadership. But these semblances of maturity were disadvantageous, because together with the birthright they caused Eisav to become overconfident and less amenable to instruction.

The weakness of childhood is intended by the Creator to facilitate the obedience to training, because the child’s dependence on his parents, and his small stature, cause him to be humble and pliable and willing to accept instruction. Eisav’s mature appearance, and also his ability to support himself by hunting (25:27) and his birthright, engendered an unwilligness to hearken to instruction and reproof.

He therefore became “a man of the field” (ibid.) in order to avoid being subjected to restraint and rebuke, unlike Jacob’s humble readiness to dwell in the tent and to be subject to his parents’ tutelage. There was another intention in the name Eisav: he was expected to be a man of action who would accomplish great achievements. His appearance as a “made” man inspired hopes that he would “make” great achievements (see 27:10). Had Eisav utilized his life properly, this meaning of his name would have come true.

One additional insight: Edom, and especially Amalek, were always bitter foes of Israel. The fact that the Torah reveals that Eisav the progenitor of Edom was derived from Yitzchak and Rivkah and was their firstborn, is a great monument to the truthfulness of the Torah. No Israelite would willingly have admitted such information had it not been so dictated by a divine Author. Therefore, despite Edom’s animosity toward Israel (as in Bamidbar 20:14), the facts of Eisav’s lineage and of his birthright were never erased from the Torah.

Rabbi Avigdor Miller

Chayei Sarah: The Blessing Hashem Wished To Impart

Thursday, November 17th, 2011

Hashem has many agents who do His bidding and bring about in the world the ends He desires. Sometimes the agent is rather unlikely, as when an evil person’s deeds bring about something beneficial. Rabbi Avigdor Miller, zt”l, explains that such was the case when Rivkah’s family bestowed upon her a blessing that in fact alluded to Israel’s ultimate elevation over the other nations, and Hashem’s ultimate kingship over all the world.

“Our sister, be you to thousands of ten thousands, and your seed should inherit the gate of his enemies” (24:60).

These words were put into the mouth of the speakers; they are really the words of G-d. We note they did not bless her with wealth or happiness or good health or even long years. G-d’s greatest blessing is children and children’s children forever. When one`s descendants cling to the service of G-d, the progenitor is considered as if he were alive forever, continuing to serve Hashem in this physical life.

This is the blessing G-d gave to Abraham (“be you to thousands…”; 13:16, 15:5, 17:20), and to Yitzchak (26:4) and to Jacob (28:14). For similar instances where G-d put His words in the mouth of ordinary men, see 23:6, 24:30. We note the similarity between this verse (“thousands of ten thousands”) and the verse “ten thousands of thousands of Israel” (Bamidbar 10:36). Thus we see that this blessing upon Rivkah was that she would  become the mother of all Israel.

Hashem blessed Abraham similarly (“your seed should inherit…”; 22:17), and Rivkah’s kin extend this blessing to her. We see here that Hashem puts His words into the mouths of ordinary persons (23:6, 24:31, 24:60). We understand that this blessing was not intended for all the seed of Rivkah, including Eisav, but for the seed of Jacob alone concerning whom it was said: “Come to rest, Hashem, upon the ten thousands of thousands of Israel” (Bamidbar 10:36).

Eisav would have benefited from this blessing had he remained with the family, but by deserting them he forfeited his benefits. However, a minor reflection of blessing came upon him; just as after Isaac’s blessings upon Jacob, Eisav gained some minor blessing from his father (27:39-40). As it turned out, Rivkah’s true seed was Jacob, and he eventually conquered Eisav and had dominion over the land of Edom (II Samuel 8:14). But the enemies of Jacob were many (22:17) and in all eras; Jacob would overcome all of them in the end.

We should note that this blessing upon Rivkah is the same as the blessing upon Yitzchak (22:17). This prophecy that Hashem put into the mouth of Rivkah’s kin certainly includes the conquest of Canaan. But chiefly it refers to the final victory over all the ideologies of the nations, when all the cities of the world will acclaim Hashem as the true G-d and they will acclaim Israel as His people and the sole bearers of Hashem’s truth.

Even more: it foretells that “All Israel has a share in the World to come,” meaning that the seed of Rivkah (which is Israel), and no one else, is guaranteed eternal life on a national scale (i.e. not merely for chosen individuals). Thus Rivkah was given a blessing parallel to the prophecy of Isaac’s name: “He shall laugh” (21:3). Her seed shall inherit the final and eternal “gate.”

Compiled for The Jewish Press by the Rabbi Avigdor Miller Simchas Hachaim Foundation, a project of Yeshiva Gedolah Bais Yisroel, which Rabbi Miller founded and authorized to disseminate his work. Subscribe to the Foundation’s free e-mail newsletters on marriage, personal growth, and more at www.SimchasHachaim.com.

Jewish Press Staff

Vayeira: Looking Back

Saturday, November 12th, 2011

Hashem offers a gift of the greatest proportions: teshuvah. To paraphrase Rabbi Avigdor Miller, zt”l, with teshuvah, no sin is too large — and without it, no sin is too small. To be effective, teshuvah has certain conditions, and one is that it must be sincere. A superficial confession does not erase sin. Further, Hashem must see that one’s teshuvah is complete; one has not only ceased to sin, but wishes to sin no longer. As sulphur and salt poured down on Sodom, Hashem offered to Lot and his family a final chance to do teshuvah and thus be spared from the destruction. That teshuvah had to be complete: He ordered explicitly, “Do not look behind you.”

“Do not look behind you and do not stop in all the plain; escape to the mountain lest you be destroyed” (19:17).

The admonition “Do not look behind you” was added in order to make Lot eligible for rescue. It came to teach Lot that he needed to cease feeling any regret at leaving the sinful place Hashem had condemned. Lot had “tarried” (19:16), which demonstrated some reluctance to leave; but now he gained awareness of the righteousness of Hashem’s justice and he turned his back forever on his past association with the sinners.

Because they chose to obey Hashem’s will and spurn the sinners, he and his daughters earned the right to be saved. But his wife did not achieve the progress her husband and her daughters achieved. She still harbored some affection for Sodom; and though she continued to hasten away, she looked back. Therefore she did not gain the right to be saved. Those who had a change of heart were saved; she failed to desert completely her old inclinations, and she was lost.

It may be asked: the people in the cities were to be destroyed, but why was the plain destroyed? We read that “the plain of the Jordan, which was watered throughout” (13:10) was the source of the wealth of these cities and the cause of their wickedness. “Behold, this was the sin of Sodom your sister: the haughtiness of satiation of food” (Ezekiel 16:49). Therefore, the plain was destroyed to demonstrate to mankind the lesson “He makes rivers into a desert, and the springs of water into a place of thirst; a fruitful land into a saltfield, because of the evil of those that dwelt there” (Tehillim 107:33-34).

The expression “in all the plain” is parallel to “And Lot chose all the plain” (13:11). This is what became of Lot’s cherished choice, and it was for this that he had forsaken his mentor Abraham. Now Lot could view the devastated salt-desert, where all his possessions had gone lost because he had forsaken the wealth of Abraham’s tutelage for the sake of the wealth he had hoped to gain from the fertile plain.

“And his wife looked behind him, and she became a pillar of salt” (19:26). Lot was walking behind his company to urge them onward. “His wife looked behind him,” which demonstrated her regret at leaving Sodom. Now that G-d had shown His condemnation of the evil cities, it was incumbent upon all to share that attitude, especially in view of the admonition of the messenger (19:17). Thhough physically she was going with her husband, her heart was still in sinful Sodom; therefore she was sentenced to remain there (see 19:3).

Thus one who abandons a sinful way of life or a sinful practice must understand that he should not look back with any longing or with the least interest in his former ways. Lot and his family were taught to regret that they had resided in Sodom, and to uproot from their minds all sentiments of attachment to the wicked city.

Rabbi Avigdor Miller

Noach: Vengeance For Israel

Wednesday, October 26th, 2011

The world before the Flood was starkly different from the world today (as even science will attest), and the destruction of the world under a layer of boiling water was an event without parallel in nature or history.

Rabbi Avigdor Miller, zt”l, remarks on a fascinating aspect of the destruction that is often overlooked: the magnitude of the recovery. The renewal of human, animal and plant species from near annihilation was as much a miracle as the destruction itself.

“From all the living, from all flesh, two of each you shall bring into the ark” (6:19). At the beginning, all animals were equally distributed over the earth, for the climate everywhere was mild and uniform. ln the arctic regions, we today find thousands of frozen carcasses of mammoth elephants preserved in the permafrost, which indicates a previously temperate climate that suddenly changed and quick-froze the bodies so that even their eyeballs are perfectly preserved.

In their stomachs, and even in their mouths, are buttercups and other plants of which nothing today can grow in the severe cold of those regions. It is evident from fossils everywhere that previously there had existed a more even distribution of plants and animals. Therefore the animals that entered the ark did not need to travel great distances, because all of them were available in the vicinity.

It is understandable that the Flood uprooted trees and shrubs, and therefore everywhere there were floating masses of land vegetation tangled with seaweed and loaded with muddy debris, on which insects of all kinds were enabled to subsist for the duration of the Flood. These floating masses were not substantial enough to support animals, and certainly could not keep them alive for the twelve months of the Flood.

The Flood marked an end to the old world and a completely new beginning for the new world. Now all mankind would trace its ancestry to Noach alone, instead of to the many contemporaries who had lived in his generation. But an even more novel world began for all the beasts and fowl and other living creatures.

At Creation, countless cattle and deer and lions came into being; and from them a vast progeny had developed. Now, only one pair of a kind remained from which all of that kind were to develop. Thus the Flood necessitated a new Creation, accompanied by astonishing phenomena that were never repeated subsequently.

A single pair of each species, caged in the ark and deprived of its natural environment for 12 months, has little chance of survival. Even after being released from the ark, one lone pair could have little chance for survival. The fact that all the species survived the ark, and afterward succeeded in populating the earth, was an enormous marvel.

The migration of living things to the ark, and their dispersal and survival after the Flood, were wondrous events almost as marvelous as the events of Creation. This stupendous series of events could have been avoided, with G-d destroying the sinners and preserving the species in ways that would seem natural to us.

But there was a reason for this grand spectacle of the rebirth of the world in such astonishing manner: to proclaim the principle that the world was recreated anew because of one virtuous man. Mankind learned that the righteous individual is so important in Hashem’s sight that for his merit the entire Creation is repeated with demonstrations that were never afterward witnessed.

Thus, when we today see an ox or a bird, we know it is derived from an inhabitant of the ark; and all men today are descendants of those who were preserved in the ark that Noach built. Thereby all the living today testify to the fundamental principle that the man who “walked with G-d” (6:9) was the cause of the rebirth of the world. (From The Beginning)

Rabbi Avigdor Miller

Rabbi David Miller: Forgotten Fighter For Orthodoxy

Wednesday, September 13th, 2006

Jewish religious observance suffered a propitious decline in early- and mid-20th century America. Orthodoxy’s prospects in this country seemed bleak indeed:

No one can overemphasize the hardships that faced Orthodox Jews who merely wished to avoid violating religious Sabbath laws in the era of the six-day week that included early Friday evenings and entire Saturdays. Orthodox Jews were effectively closed out of virtually any position in any business not owned by another Orthodox Jew. Out of sheer necessity and the instinct for survival in virtually any job that did not involve self-employment, many otherwise pious Jews inevitably succumbed. (The Maverick Rabbi by Aaron Reichel, Donning Publishers, 1986.)

Many rabbinical leaders did their utmost to stem the tide of abandonment of Torah-true Judaism. They were assisted by a few unusual “private persons” who used their talents and wealth to promote the observance of Judaism and provide children with a religious education. One such individual was Rabbi David Miller of Oakland, California.

Little is known about David Miller’s youth. He was born in Lithuania in around 1869. He came from a very poor home: “It was a common sight,” he wrote, “to see a poor, widowed woman, like my Mother (God bless her memory), pawn her pillow to help pay for the education of her child.”

Young Miller attended yeshiva in Rozhinoi (known as Ruzhany in Russian). He was also a student for some time in the Slabodka Yeshiva – he noted that he studied mussar with the “tzadikei olam HaRabbonim, hagaonim Rav Yitzchok Blazer, Rav Naftali Amsterdam, and Rav Nota Hirsch Finkel, zt”l.”

Through his yeshiva studies David Miller acquired a profound and thorough knowledge of the Torah and Talmud. He wrote: “I am an authorized Rabbi, ordained by highly esteemed Jewish religious leaders, among them the great Rabbi Isaac Elchanan of Kovno.”

Rabbi Miller came to this country in around 1890 and served as a rabbi in congregations in New York and Providence, Rhode Island. He became disillusioned with serving in the rabbinate, however, and gave up his rabbinical career, moving out West. He did this for what he called “conscientious reasons,” stating that he desired to make “no material profit from Jewish affairs.”

Rabbi Miller realized that the fundamental Torah institutions of Sabbath observance and family purity were being neglected by large segments of the American Jewish population. With that in mind, he dedicated his life, scholarship, and wealth to strengthening and advancing these institutions.

He wrote and distributed without charge his book The Secret of the Jew, spending large sums for its dissemination without thought of gain or profit. Shortly before his death, he wrote a book called The Secret of Happiness in which he explained the value of Sabbath observance as a means of Jewish satisfaction and contentment.

(Rabbi Miller’s books deal with more than the laws of family purity and Sabbath observance. They contain deep insights into all aspects of Jewish moral and religious life. They can be downloaded at no charge from http://www.hebrewbooks.org/.)

In about 1905 Rabbi Miller settled in Oakland, California. Records show that by 1906 he was successfully involved in the real estate and construction businesses. Indeed, he soon became quite wealthy, residing in what was then considered the affluent area of Oakland.

While many of Oakland’s Jews had embraced the Reform movement and were generally on the fast track to assimilation, the city was home to a viable Orthodox Jewish community. Until the 1930’s signs of authentic Jewish life were highly visible. A frequent sight on Castro, Chestnut or Myrtle Streets was that of bearded, black-coated peddlers, uncomfortable in the warm sun. Women, their hair in scarves, hurried from one kosher butcher to another, comparing prices and gossiping in Yiddish.

“Spiritual life centered around the two largest Orthodox shuls, Beth Abraham and Beth Jacob, but smaller groups of worshippers could be found as well. Yitzchak Rabinovitz, a descendent of a long line of Romanian rabbis, was one of several Oaklanders who had a tiny shtiebel, complete with Torah, in his own home.” (Free to Choose, the Making of Jewish Community in the American West by Fred Rosenbaum, The Judah L. Magnes Memorial Museum, 1976.)

Jewish Education

(The following section is based on Rabbi Miller’s “An Open Letter to the United Jewish Fund,” dated August 30, 1935 and his “An Open Letter to the Jewish People of Oakland,” dated September 2, 1937. Courtesy Yeshiva University Archives, Rabbi David Miller Collection.)

Rabbi Miller understood that a good religious Jewish education was the key to ensuring the future of Yiddishkeit. As obvious as this seems to us today, this was not so clear in the first half of the twentieth century to many American Jewish parents – including those who were Orthodox. Many felt that public school attendance supplemented with a few hours of allegedly Jewish education in the afternoon was enough. (More often than not, this smattering of “Jewish” instruction contained virtually no religious content.)

Rabbi Miller started and supported at his own expense a Talmud Torah for the children of Oakland. (As far as I have been able to determine, Rabbi Miller did not have any children of his own.) Not only did he support this school financially, but he also devoted much of his time to running it. The school did not last; some in the community were opposed to it. In 1935 Rabbi Miller wrote,

For lack of obtaining other room, I conducted my school at this congregation [Beth Jacob Congregation, one of the two large Orthodox shuls mentioned above] which I helped to found in 1907 and maintain thereafter. For having the privilege of educating Jewish children at my own expense in that Synagogue, I had to go through the humiliation of obtaining a permit from that President. I encountered much resistance in maintaining the school there. My permit was cancelled by the President [in 1921]. This was the greatest blow I ever received in my spiritual life, and the hardest struck on the innocent Jewish children.

These children have now grown to manhood and womanhood. Some of them have children of their own. Most of them still remember the lessons I taught them in an interesting, attractive, understandable way. I feel that I am completely rewarded. But just imagine my deep sorrow; the irreparable loss! Had they not broken me, my school, what accomplishment there would have been by this time – in all probability a Jewishly inspired generation would have been raised.

Rabbi Miller did not give p on Jewish education in Oakland. In the same open letter quoted above, he expressed his intention to donate five thousand dollars to the United Fund or/and the Jewish Federation of Oakland to be used to establish a new Talmud Torah. (According to the Consumer Price Index, five thousand dollars in 1935 would be the equivalent of more than seventy thousand dollars today.)

There were two conditions attached to this generous offer, however. First, these organizations had to match Rabbi Miller’s donation; second, the school had to be conducted in accordance with Orthodox Judaism.

Rabbi Miller’s open letter and financial offer fell on deaf ears; on September 2, 1937, a few days before Rosh Hashanah, he issued another “Open Letter to the Jewish People of Oakland” (capitalization and underlining all from the original):

I refer particularly to the terrible neglect of the Oakland Jewish people in not having a real, daily school for the Jewish religious education of their children. SUCH NEGLIGENCE IS UNPARDONABLE. It is a spiritual crime. Tens of thousands of dollars are raised annually in Oakland for all kinds of philanthropy and fads but none for local real Jewish education.

Jewish religious education for children is the first, the basic, the outstanding precept in the Torah. It takes precedence over building a synagogue, obtaining the Holy Scrolls, and even the building of the Holy Temple. If there is no Jewish religious education for the children, the money put into synagogues and temples is wasted. Such neglect is suicide.

Now, therefore, in order to do justice to my own city and in order to clear myself before the Jewish world, I herewith offer my community another chance to establish an adequate school for Jewish children. I would be willing to contribute up to one-third of the running expense of such a school. Although I am not now in a position to give my time exclusively to this work, as I have done in the past, for the reason that there is now a great demand on my time from all over the Jewish world, nevertheless, I would give to such a school the benefit of my professional experience in systematizing and guiding it, that the aim of saving the Jewish children for Judaism might be accomplished. Such a school can not be a private affair, depending on me alone, as in the past. It must be a community institution. Therefore, I most earnestly urge the Oakland Community to take the matter in hand.

Sadly, this heartfelt plea also went unanswered. As a result, for many years there was no real Orthodox Jewish education in Oakland, Calif., to speak of. It was not until 1970 that the Hillel Academy of Oakland was formed. Classes were held in Congregation Beth Jacob. This school was supplanted by The Oakland Hebrew Day School in 1992.

TheTisha b’Av Picnic

(Unless otherwise noted, the quotes in this section come from Rabbi Miller’s August 1, 1938, letter “To the Oakland Lodge of B’nai B’rith, Attention George J. Weiser, President. Courtesy Yeshiva University Archives, Koenigsberg Collection.)

The national organization B’nai B’rith was founded in 1843 by German Jewish immigrants in New York. The Oakland chapter was established in 1875. As we shall see below, by 1938, if not considerably earlier, the Oakland Lodge had completely divorced itself from Torah Judaism.

On August 1, 1938, Rabbi Miller issued a letter to the Oakland Lodge. He wrote,

To my astonishment I received an invitation to attend the B’nai B’rith picnic on Sunday, August 7th, which is known to every Jew as being [Tisha b’Av]. I presume you know that [Tisha b’Av], the day you have appointed for indulgence in a gay [festive] rally, has been for the Jews a sad day for over eighteen centuries, the day when the greatest catastrophes to the Jewish nation and people have occurred.

It is unthinkable that you should be rejoicing, eating, drinking, and dancing, while the rest of the Jews are fasting and sobbing and crying. For a Jew to do that is equivalent to his dancing at his own funeral.

Planning a picnic on [Tisha b’Av] was not the only activity that this Lodge engaged in that showed absolutely no sensitivity to Orthodox Judaism. I have been a member of the B’nai B’rith Oakland Lodge for about twenty-five years. I have experienced many aggravations, such as the practice of the B’nai B’rith in persisting to eat contaminated Trefa food at their banquets and the awarding of a leg of ham with the inscription of “Kosher” as a gate prize, thus mocking and irritating the Jew who is loyal to his religion and to his sacred traditional inheritance.

I doubt the lodge canceled its picnic on Tisha b’Av. To put it mildly, Rabbi Miller was not appreciated by a good portion of the Oakland Jewish community:

The Oakland Jewish leadership felt that Miller was a crank or, according to one reporter in 1929, ‘detrimental to the best interests of East Bay Jewry.’ A short-lived Jewish community newspaper, The Menorah, was instructed by the Federation to cease the publication of Miller’s articles. The [adminstrators of the Jewish Federation] Fund, meanwhile, icily replied to his request for money on behalf of a Lithuanian Yeshivah with the statement, “We do not recognize David Miller as the representative of anything.” (Free to Choose, page 87.)

Fighting Insurmountable Odds

Clearly, Rabbi Miller’s attempts to strengthen Orthodoxy in Oakland during the first part of the twentieth century met with strong opposition. Still, he continued his efforts until his death. He was a fighter for Orthodoxy at a time when many had given up the battle.

Rabbi Miller’s efforts enjoyed more success outside of Oakland. His books were read the world over and encouraged many to observe Shabbos and taharas hamishpacha. Over the years he contributed substantial sums to a wide variety of yeshivas and chesed organizations.

Rabbi Miller passed away on January 7, 1939 (Tevet 16, 5699). His last will and testament, dated February 23, 1938, left money to nine prominent yeshivas in Europe and America. Rabbi Miller clearly understood the value of Torah education, and the crucial role it plays in perpetuating Judaism.

It was men like Rabbi Miller who laid the foundations of Yiddishkeit in America – foundations on which today’s vibrant Orthodoxy is built. The importance of what he and others like him did should not be underestimated. Every Orthodox Jew living today owes these pioneers a debt of gratitude.


The author wishes to thank Shulamith Z. Berger, curator of Special Collections at Yeshiva University, and Steven Lavoie, Librarian II, Oakland History Room, Oakland (California) Public Library, for their assistance in finding information about the life of Rabbi Miller.

Dr. Yitzchok Levine, a frequent contributor to The Jewish Press, is a professor in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey. Glimpses Into American Jewish History appears the first week of each month. Dr. Levine can be contacted at llevine@stevens.edu.

Dr. Yitzchok Levine

Rav Avigdor Miller, zt”l

Wednesday, May 30th, 2001

We join Klal Yisroel in mourning the death of Rabbi Avigdor Miller, zt”l, one of the foremost marbitzei Torah of our time. He possessed a rock-solid faith which was reflected in a signature message of uncompromising fealty to the Will of the Creator. A Talmudic scholar of prodigious accomplishment and exemplar of mussar study, Rabbi Miller pioneered in bringing to millions of Jews an exceptionally rational pathway through age-old philosophical conundrums and had much to do with the remarkable resurgence of faith of the last fifty years.

Rabbi Miller passionately embraced the world as the work of the Creator and in the manner of the scientific researcher, continually sought to reveal its links to the Divine.

With an all-encompassing interest in the Torah and uncommon powers of explication, Rabbi Miller emerged as a peerless teacher and guide. His regal bearing, flinty integrity and distinctive oratory and writing enabled him to inspire generations of Jews.

Perhaps as a symbol of his particular relevance to this time and place, in addition to his monumental volumes, Rabbi Miller’s words will continue to resonate in the countless tapes that survive him.

May his memory be for a blessing.

Editorial Board

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