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How often do you feel that there is too much to do but not enough time to get everything done? Feeling time pressure can induce anxiety and stress, and often leads to making poor, impulsive decisions, especially related to gratifying immediate impulses. For instance, when we don’t have the time or energy to think through our food choices, we will likely choose the chocolate cake instead of the apple.

However, in an interestingly designed study, Kim, Wadhwa, and Chattopadhyay (2018) distinguished between the negative components of time pressure and the positive possibilities of having a busy mindset. Through their research they argue that perceiving oneself as busy (busy mindset), absent the overwhelming feeling that there isn’t enough time to get everything done (time pressure), can actually have positive benefits. People who are busy tend to feel productive, which boosts their sense of self-importance. Consequently, this feeling encourages them to make better self-control decisions. They will choose the apple instead of the chocolate cake.


Like his father’s message from Avot 2:1, Rabban Gamliel the son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi also offers advice for making right choices and avoiding sin. While there are several ways to understand the first two clauses of his Mishna (Avot 2:2), the main thrust of his message seems to be that the way one spends one’s time will have a direct impact on sinning: “desirable is the study of the Torah when combined with worldly occupation (derech eretz), for toil in them both makes sin forgotten; And any Torah which is not combined with work (melacha), in the end comes to be neglected and leads to sin.”

According to the commentaries, both learning and working each have two factors that contribute to avoiding the battle with the evil inclination. Working provides us with the financial support that prevents the desire to steal. Learning teaches us, reminds us, and inspires us to follow the laws (Meiri). In addition, toiling in Torah is mentally exhausting and working is physically exhausting, and when combined, there is no time or energy left over for the evil inclination to take hold (Bartenura). In the words of Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Kotzk (quoted by Rabbi Dr. Abraham J. Twerski), “The reason one should not sin is not because it is forbidden, but because one should not have time for sin. When you are not engaged in working for a livelihood you should be studying Torah. You will simply not have the time to sin.” We should be so engaged in meaningful and valuable pursuits that we don’t have time to sin. This busy mindset should boost our sense of self-worth and inspire us to make the right choices.

Other commentaries argue that “derech eretz” in the first clause does not reference an occupation (as that is already spoken for in the second clause with the term melacha), but rather refers to proper character and ethical behavior. While some question this position, arguing that “toiling” makes more sense in the context of work than character formation, Rabbi Yosef Yaavetz defends this approach, contending that refining one’s personality requires much toil and hardship. It is through the combination of learning Torah and diligent self-improvement that one avoids sin.

In an even more expansive definition of derech eretz, Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch writes;

Therefore, this term – derech eretz – includes the means by which humans make a livelihood, one’s national citizenship, the courtesy, sensitivity, rectitude, customs and manners of the milieu in which one lives and all of the forms – cultural, personal, general and national – of society generally.

Consequently, the active engagement in all these aspects of life will help us stay on the right path and avoid iniquitous behavior.

And if our schedule was not already packed with toiling in Torah, an occupation, and character refinement, Rabban Gamliel closes his Mishna by promoting communal work: “And all who labor with the community, should labor with them for the sake of Heaven, for the merit of their forefathers sustains them, and their righteousness endures forever; And as for you, I credit you with a rich reward, as if you had achieved it.” While much analysis is necessary to unpack the nuances of this cryptic formulation, his main message is to encourage individuals to work on behalf of the community (albeit with the right motivation). Rambam understands the assurance of reward “as if you had achieved it” to indicate that even though people who engage in work for the community are often so busy that they do not have time to perform other mitzvot, G-d grants them the reward of that unperformed mitzvah. Rabbi Moshe Almosnino explains this idea differently. Someone who dedicates himself to the community and consequently sacrifices his time to learn, work, or perform other mitzvot, will be rewarded with all the intellectual and character benefits, such as the aforementioned forgetting of sin, that he would have attained through learning, working, and doing the other mitzvot.

From this perspective, each aspect of Rabban Gamliel’s message converges to promote a busy mindset. Without feeling overwhelmed by time pressure, we should fill our days with learning, working, self-improvement, and communal work. This will not only help prevent sin, but with the right intention, will infuse our lives with a deep sense of purpose and meaning, motivating us to better serve G-d and be of service to others.


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Rabbi Dr. Mordechai Schiffman is an Assistant Professor at Yeshiva University’s Azrieli Graduate School, an instructor at RIETS, and the Straus Center for Torah and Western Thought. He graduated YU with a BA in psychology, an MS in Jewish Education from Azrieli and Rabbinic Ordination from RIETS, before attending St. John’s University for his doctorate in psychology.He learned for two years at Yeshivat Netiv Aryeh. He has been on the rabbinic staff of Kingsway Jewish Center in Brooklyn, NY since 2010 and practices as a licensed psychologist in NY. His book “Psyched for Torah,” his academic and popular articles, as well as many of his lectures are accessible on his website,