web analytics
September 21, 2014 / 26 Elul, 5774
At a Glance
Judaism
Sponsored Post
Apartment 758x530 Africa-Israel at the Israel Real Estate Exhibition in New York

Africa Israel Residences, part of the Africa Israel Investments Group led by international businessman Lev Leviev, will present 7 leading projects on the The Israel Real Estate Exhibition in New York on Sep 14-15, 2014.



Home » Judaism » Torah »

Q & A: Hachana (Part II)

QUESTION: Is it halachically permissible to pack on the Sabbath or Yom Tov for a trip to be taken on the next day?

Moishe Halberstam
Brooklyn, NY


ANSWER: We began our discussion with the general premise that it is preferable not to pack on Shabbat or a holiday in preparation of a trip to be taken subsequently, on a weekday. Some halachic authorities prohibit doing so. This activity would be categorized as hachana or
preparation on Shabbat or a holiday for a need after Shabbat or the holiday, which is prohibited. Items not intended for use on the same day of Shabbat or a holiday are considered muktza, a biblically based concept (Exodus 16:5, Beitza 2b) with the Torah’s frame of reference being food preparation.

In order to be able to prepare food on one day of a holiday for the next day of that holiday or for a Sabbath that immediately follows it, an eruv tavshilin (two types of food set aside as preparation of a meal) is prepared, the reasoning being that food is prepared for that same day
and it is the leftovers that are used on the following day. The assumption is that a guest may suddenly arrive and require food. With this reasoning, the prohibition of hachana is avoided in the preparation of food. And even though the verse quoted refers to food only, other types of
preparation are included as well.

This week we focus on the issues of hachana as they relate to garments and beds.

* * *

We learn (Shabbat 113a, mishna): “We may fold articles [of clothing, on Shabbat], even four and five times. We may arrange the beds from Shabbat [Friday] night for Shabbat [by day] but not on Shabbat for Motza’ei (the departure of) Shabbat…”

Rashi s.v. “mekaplin et hakeilim” explains that generally clothes that are removed are also folded, because the cleaning/washing process softens the material and causes the garments to wrinkle easily.

Thus, we see from Rashi’s statement that folding garments improves their appearance and possibly prolongs their usage even after Shabbat, yet we may do so on Shabbat, even four and five times, if the intent is to wear them again on that day.

It is obvious that if there is no further need for these garments on that day, one may not fold them. Indeed, Tosafot s.v. “mekaplim keilim” state as follows: “From here we derive that it is forbidden to fold the tallitot of the synagogue [on Shabbat, at the conclusion of the tefillah]
because that is [equivalent to providing for] a need for the morrow.”

The Gemara, in explaining the mishna, cites what they expounded in the school of R. Yannai about this rule [of folding]: applies to one person only, but where two people [are engaged in folding] it is not permitted; as regards new garments [it is allowed] if they are white, but colored garments are not permitted [to be folded]. Further, the folding was only allowed in the event he had no other garment, but if he possesses other garments, he may not fold it.

It is on this Gemara that R. Yosef Caro (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayyim 302:3) bases his rules: “We may fold, on Shabbat, garments that are needed to be worn that day, provided the following conditions are met: [the garments are folded] only by one person; they are new garments that have not as yet been laundered; they are white; and then only if one has no other [garment] to change into. If any of these stipulations are not met, one is prohibited from doing so (folding).”

The Mechaber then concludes: “There is an opinion stating that folding [the tallit] not according to the original creases is permitted in all cases, and his words seem to be correct.” This last statement of the Mechaber refers to both the Mordechai (Shabbat 113) and the Kol Bo (Hilchot Shabbat 31), who rule accordingly. In the Kol Bo we find this ruling attributed to a text of Ra’avad.

There appears to be an inconsistency in the Magen Avraham regarding the folding of the tallit and arranging a bed. The Magen Avraham (ad loc.) states: “And it seems to me that a bed that stands in a room in which he lives may embarrass him and be unpleasant if it remains that
way [unmade], and therefore it may be made, for it has become a need of Shabbat itself.” This statement stands despite a seemingly contradictory statement in the mishna (Shabbat 113a) stipulating that one may make the bed from Friday night for the Shabbat [day], but not from on the Shabbat day [in preparation] for Saturday night, since on Shabbat the straightening of the bed is not a necessity for Shabbat, but rather for after Shabbat. The reason for the former statement is obviously the fact that the unmade bed’s presence in a room that is being used
on Shabbat, even though the bed itself will not be used, will cause an impingement on the holiness of Shabbat, and thus making up the bed is permitted in that situation.

Yet we find that the Mechaber (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayyim 14:4) states as follows: “One is permitted to take his friend’s tallit [without the latter's knowledge] and recite a blessing upon it, as long as he folds it [again] if he found it folded.”

The Magen Avraham posits that he folds that tallit even in a manner different from the way he found it. [This halacha of the Mechaber is found in Hilchot Tzitzit, and refers primarily to weekdays.] However, on Shabbat he does not fold it at all, and even then it is permitted for
him to take [the tallit].” This is based on the rule in Bava Metzia (29b) “Nicha lei le’inish de’tiavid mitzva bemamoneih – A person is pleased when a mitzva is fulfilled with his possession” (lit. money). We apply this rule to the tallit scenario, so that although the borrower
returns the tallit unfolded and not in the condition in which he found it originally (because he had borrowed it on Shabbat and was therefore prohibited from folding it), the owner will rejoice in the fact that his possession enabled a fellow Jew to fulfill a mitzva. On the other
hand, when it comes to his own bed, an individual is allowed to make it (despite the folding that may be involved) even though he has no further use for it on Shabbat, to prevent an infringement on the spirit of sanctity of the Sabbath.

Regarding the tallit, the Mechaber himself seems to rule that as long as one does not fold the tallit in the original manner, one is permitted to fold it even on Shabbat. The Mishna Berura (Orach Chayyim 302:3-18) explains how we rule in this matter, stating: “Because this type of folding has no lasting effect and therefore there is no liability for transgressing [the labor of]
metakken (lit. fixing) [on Shabbat] at all, it is permitted in this manner even in the event that one of the four above mentioned conditions [i.e., folded by one person only, new garments never laundered, white garments, and where no other garment is available to change into] is not met, and even if there is no intention to wear the garment [again] on that day [Shabbat].”

The Mishna Berura continues, explaining the Mechaber’s last words in this chapter, “and his words seem to be correct” to indicate that “so have the Acharonim, the later halachic authorities, concluded in their rulings.”

“However,” adds the Mishna Berura (ibid.), “he who wishes to be more stringent and not fold at all, that is [considered] far better.” He then concludes with the statement of the Magen Avraham regarding the making of beds on Shabbat which, though generally prohibited as
the preparation of something needed later, on Saturday night, would be allowed if it is a bed in his house (i.e., in a room he frequents) and it is unpleasant for him to leave the bed unmade, as making the bed has thus become a legitimate need of Shabbat itself.

We will highlight out some points requiring further discussion. Why does the Magen Avraham include hatza’at hamitot, the making of beds, in this halacha, when the Mechaber did not? (The same question is addressed to the Mishna Berura as well.) We should also be asking why the Mechaber did not include the halacha relating to the making or straightening of beds – which
is found in the Mishna – in his Shulchan Aruch, especially since we see that Rambam did include it (Hilchot Shabbat 23:7). We wonder as well why the Chayyei Adam included this halacha in a separate chapter (60), apart from the chapter regarding the halachot of folding clothes on Shabbat (56). Further, why does the Mishna Berura state: “However, he who wishes to be more stringent and not fold at all, that is [considered] far better” - after he has already ruled that it is permitted? Also, we find the same ruling in the Aruch HaShulchan
(loc. cit. 302:11), with no mention of any laudatory stringency in this regard.

All this necessitates further explanation as to what the halacha actually allows.

(To be continued)

About the Author: Rabbi Yaakov Klass, rav of Congregation K’hal Bnei Matisyahu in Flatbush, Brooklyn, is Torah Editor of The Jewish Press. He can be contacted at yklass@jewishpress.com.


If you don't see your comment after publishing it, refresh the page.

Our comments section is intended for meaningful responses and debates in a civilized manner. We ask that you respect the fact that we are a religious Jewish website and avoid inappropriate language at all cost.

If you promote any foreign religions, gods or messiahs, lies about Israel, anti-Semitism, or advocate violence (except against terrorists), your permission to comment may be revoked.

No Responses to “Q & A: Hachana (Part II)”

Comments are closed.

SocialTwist Tell-a-Friend

Current Top Story
Dozens of children were traumatized but escaped injury Sunday morning when Arabs in eastern Jerusalem attacked their bus.
‘Benign Neglect’ May Be Setting Up Eastern Jerusalem Jews for Expulsion
Latest Judaism Stories
Hertzberg-092614

Perhaps the most important leadership lesson Elkana taught us is to never underestimate the difference a single person can make.

Teller-Rabbi-Hanoch-NEW

“he’s my rabbi” the Black painter said with pride, pulling out a photo of the Rebbe from his wallet

Rabbi Avi Weiss, head of theYeshivat Chovevei Torah. Rabbi Asher Lopatin will be replacing him as head of the school.

The Torah notes that even when we are dispersed God will return us to Him.

Rabbi Sacks

Simply, for Rambam the number 14 (2×7) was his favored organizing principle.

One of the cornerstones of our Jewish life is chesed, kindness. Chesed can only be taught by example

Our understanding of what is and what is not possible creates imagined ceilings of opportunity for us.

This young, innocent child gave me a powerful, warm surge of energy and strength.

The Chafetz Chaim answered that there are two forms of teshuvah; teshuvah m’ahava and teshuvah m’yirah.

Question: I recently loaned money to a friend who has been able to repay only part of it. This was an interest-free loan. We exchanged a signed IOU, not a proper shtar with witnesses, since I have always trusted her integrity and only wanted a document that confirms what was loaned and what was repaid. Now that shemittah is approaching, what should I do? Should I forgive the loan? And if my friend is not able to repay it, may I deduct the unpaid money from my ma’aser requirement?

Name Withheld

A Role Reversal
‘Return, O Wayward Sons…’
(Chagigah 15a)

When the Kleins returned, however, they were dismayed to see that the renters did a poor job cleaning up after themselves.

In Parshas Re’eh the Torah tells us about the bechira to adhere to the commandments of Hashem and refrain from sin. In Parshas Nitzavim, the Torah tells us that we have the choice to repent after we have sinned.

As Moshe is about to die, why does God tell him about how the Israelites will ruin everything?

Jonah objected to God accepting repentance based on ulterior motives and likely for short duration.

This week’s parsha offers a new covenant; a covenant that speaks to national life unlike any other

More Articles from Rabbi Yaakov Klass
Questions-Answers-logo

Question: I recently loaned money to a friend who has been able to repay only part of it. This was an interest-free loan. We exchanged a signed IOU, not a proper shtar with witnesses, since I have always trusted her integrity and only wanted a document that confirms what was loaned and what was repaid. Now that shemittah is approaching, what should I do? Should I forgive the loan? And if my friend is not able to repay it, may I deduct the unpaid money from my ma’aser requirement?

Name Withheld

Question: I recently loaned money to a friend who has been able to repay only part of it. This was an interest-free loan. We exchanged a signed IOU, not a proper shtar with witnesses, since I have always trusted her integrity and only wanted a document that confirms what was loaned and what was repaid. Now that shemittah is approaching, what should I do? Should I forgive the loan? And if my friend is not able to repay it, may I deduct the unpaid money from my ma’aser requirement?

Name Withheld

Question: I recently loaned money to a friend who has been able to repay only part of it. This was an interest-free loan. We exchanged a signed IOU, not a proper shtar with witnesses, since I have always trusted her integrity and only wanted a document that confirms what was loaned and what was repaid. Now that shemittah is approaching, what should I do? Should I forgive the loan? And if my friend is not able to repay it, may I deduct the unpaid money from my ma’aser requirement?

Name Withheld

Question: The Gemara in Berachot states that the sages authored our prayers. Does that mean we didn’t pray beforehand?

Menachem
Via Email

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/judaism/torah/q-a-hachana-part-ii/2003/06/27/

Scan this QR code to visit this page online: