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The Purpose Of The Melachah

Thursday, November 22nd, 2012

The link between the laws of Shabbat and the Mishkan not only defines the 39 Melachot but also determines the conditions for liability. One of these conditions is intent. The other is purpose.

The melachah must be performed for a similar purpose as the act performed in the Mishkan. Accordingly, one might, intentionally, perform the same act performed in the Mishkan and yet be exempt from biblical liability if it did not have a similar purpose.

For example, digging (a derivative of plowing), was performed in the Mishkan for the use of the hole itself, in which tent pegs were sunk. Therefore, one who digs for earth and has no use for the hole has not performed a melachah in the Torah sense of the term, a melachah de’oreita.

Similarly, extinguishing a fire, a primary or av melachah, was performed in the Mishkan to produce glowing embers needed to smelt metal. Therefore, one who turns off the light in order to sleep, or to save electricity, has not performed a melachah de’oreita. Such an act is known as a melachah she’eina tzericha l’gufa. Although biblically exempt from liability once performed, a melachah she’eina tzericha l’gufa is rabbinically prohibited, a melachah derabbanan and should not be performed in the first place.

What is the difference between a melachah de’oreita and melachah derabbanan if both are prohibited? The answer is that generally there is more room for leniency in melachot derabbanan. For example, melachot derabbanan may, mostly, be performed during twilight, bein hashmashot, on Erev Shabbat; they may, with certain restrictions, be performed by a Jew on Shabbat to alleviate substantial pain; they may, in certain situations, be performed by a Jew on Shabbat in order to avert a substantial financial loss; they may, in certain circumstances, be performed for a Jew on Shabbat by a non-Jew; and they are not themselves subject to protective legislation.

Because the melachah she’eina tzericha l’gufa is closest to a melachah de’oreita, in that it only lacks the element of common purpose and because there is a dispute with regard to its definition, the rabbis are less lenient with it than with other melachot derabbanan. Accordingly, it enjoys some but not all of the flexibility described. For example, a melachah she’eina tzericha l’gufa may not be performed bein hashmashot. Such a melachah may, however, for the most part be performed by a Jew on Shabbat for the sick, even the not dangerously sick; and in certain situations may be performed for a Jew on Shabbat by a non- Jew.

Based on these principles, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Braun, in his work Sha’arim Metzuyanim B’Halacha, writes that sparks ignited by plugging in or out of electricity is akin to a melachah she’eina tzericha l’gufa, in that it is a psik reishe delo neecha lei, which means an inevitable melachah arising from a permitted act that is of no use to its performer.

Accordingly, to avoid substantial financial loss one may ask a non-Jew to reconnect a well-stocked freezer that became disconnected from its electricity on Shabbat. Similarly, one may ask a non-Jew to turn off an appliance which, if left running all through Shabbat, would overheat and burn out.

Hundreds of NY Homes to Be Torn Down After Sandy

Sunday, November 18th, 2012

Hundreds of homes damaged beyond repair during Hurricane Sandy will be readied for demolition by New York City workers according to an article in the New York Times.

Over 200 homes in Queens, Staten Island and Brooklyn either burned down or were washed out to sea.

Manhattan hospitals New York University Medical Center and Bellevue are still working to recover from damage and contamination caused by flooding.

According to the report, there are still thousands of families who have no electricity and are unable to live in their homes.

Updated: Latest (75+) Missile Alerts and Strikes

Saturday, November 10th, 2012

Latest rocket launches and alarms [Editor: Sorry, we're having trouble keeping up with all of them.]

Trivia: As of 11:03 PM 858 rockets were launched at Israel from Gaza in 2012.

More than 60 rockets this evening.

4 injuries reported, and 25 Kassams just on Sderot alone between 8:00AM-9:00AM Sunday morning.

8:50 AM Shaar HaNegev

8:29 AM Eshkol

2 medium injuries and 1 light injury from Sderot rocket.

8:08 AM Sderot – At least 10 rockets.

8:00 AM Eshkol

7:57 AM Sderot – Rockets fell in an educational center. Multiple launches.

7:28 AM Sderot

7:12 AM Ashkelom Beach

7:00 AM (Sunday) Ashkelon Beach

3:37 AM Ashkelon Beach

2:28 AM Ashkelon Beach

12:06 AM Eshkol

12:05 AM Eshkol

12:04 AM Sha’ar HaNegev

12:02 AM Eshkol. Part of Eshkol without electricity after rocket hits power line. No reports of any parts of Gaza being without electricity (supplied by Israel).

12:00 AM (Sunday) Sha’ar HaNegev

11:52 PM Eshkol

11:49 PM Ashkelon Beach

11:45 PM Ashkelon Beach

11:40 PM Eshkol

11:33 PM Eshkol

11:27 PM Eshkol

11:12 PM Ashkelon Beach (and the alarm didn’t sound).

11:03 PM Eshkol

11:00 PM Eshkol

10:54 PM Sha’ar Hanegev. Eshkol. 30 Rockets fired so far at Israel.

9:45 PM Sderot and Ashkelon and Ashkelon Beach under fire.

For earlier attacks Saturday evening, please see this article.

In case you were wondering where the Eshkol region is:

After Sandy, Volunteers Crisscross Manhattan to Help

Friday, November 2nd, 2012

In a nearly dark corner of lower Manhattan, in an area otherwise known as Tribeca, Rabbi Zalman Paris stands tall, cellular phone in hand, to answer another call from a young volunteer eager to offer assistance. Days after Hurricane Sandy left millions across New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and New Jersey without electricity, food or water, there are plenty of people who want to help victims and their communities recover.

From his window, Paris, director of Chabad-Lubavitch of Tribeca and SoHo, watched the storm hurl itself into the homes and lives of residents nearby. The storm prevented him from venturing outdoors, but the moment he was able to, the rabbi assembled a plan and a team to help his neighbors.

“Many organizations have joined us in our efforts to help those in need during this hard time,” he said.

Paris partnered with Rabbi Levi Shmotkin of Chabad Young Professionals, Ari Teman of JCorps, and Julie Menin, a candidate for Manhattan Borough President.

“We brought in a paramedic to aid the elderly, who with no way out of their buildings needed immediate medical attention,” Shmotkin relayed.

Menin detailed that she kept the 10,000 people on her contact list updated by email.

“People would email that they needed food, water, diapers and baby formula. I then sent an email blast to Rabbi Paris,” said Menin.

All told, more than 100 volunteers traversed lower Manhattan, crisscrossing the city’s streets to visit nearly 3,000 apartment units in one day alone.

One longtime JCorps volunteer named Jillian described her experience as “eye opening.” More than 100 volunteers assisted the Tribeca effort.

“Today we visited some housing developments of the lower east side to bring food and water to the elderly and disabled citizens who are without,” she said. “You really become thankful for what you do have during a time like this.”

With the Sabbath approaching, they are hoping that the electricity will be restored.

“We may not have power, but we will definitely be spending the Sabbath with the many people and volunteers who are here with us,” said Paris. “Although many fled the neighborhood prior to the storm, our focus was on those that didn’t have anywhere to go.”

Majestic Destroyer

Friday, November 2nd, 2012

Reader Jonathan Kahanovitch sent us this amazing image of Ms. Liberty under a canopy of ominous clouds.

Destruction can be so pretty.

Hope you’re dry and safe and that you have electricity and Internet. Otherwise, we probably won’t be having this conversation.

Shabbat Shalom.

Israeli Innovation Could Make Water Drinkable in Africa

Monday, August 13th, 2012

In a world where freshwater resources are becoming increasingly scarce, Israel–a country that is two-thirds arid–has become a leader in developing the necessary technology for making salt water potable.

The Israeli desalination company, IDE Technologies, which has been in operation for more than 40 years, has made many advances in desalination technology, installing over 400 desalination plants in 40 countries including the Caribbean Islands and United States. IDE Technologies has also won major contracts with Cyprus, India and Australia, and last year with China.

Since 2011, the Israeli-built desalination plant in Tianjin is China’s largest and most environmentally friendly desalination plant to date, running on some of the waste heat produced by a nearby power plant, producing fresh water and salt.

However, desalination plants for the most part are extremely costly for less-developed nations, as they use enormous amounts of electricity and are location-sensitive. But thanks to a recent Israeli discovery, the desalination system may become much more affordable in areas like Africa and the Middle East.

Researchers from the Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research at Ben Gurion University of the Negev and central Arava R&D, have found a way to utilize solar energy at a fraction of the cost which can be custom-engineered for the desalination process, according to the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA).

The new innovation uses solar energy panels to power the pumps of a desalination unit that generates clean water for crops. More importantly, the technology utilizes unique nanofiltration membranes that enable farmers to decide which minerals should be retained from the water to feed various types of crops, a method which requires much less energy. The new system is currently being tested in the Arava Valley of Israel, south of the Dead Sea, where the basin is very dry. The results thus far show that farmers can use up to 25 percent less water and fertilizer than what has usually been needed in that area.

According to Andrea Ghermandi of the Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research at Ben-Gurion University and one of the system’s creators, the current environment is forcing agricultural systems to become more economical. Ghermandi told the MFA that “the growing global demand for food and competition for resources among economic sectors compel future agricultural systems to be more efficient in the use of natural resources such as land and water.”

Another important researcher in the discovery, Ben Gurion University’s Rami Messalem explained that the” breakthrough here was to make the system more economical and we’ve done this using nanofiltration cleverly. Our system is compatible with electricity but is based on the premise that it can be used in poor countries, in places where you don’t have an electricity source—as a standalone system.”

The MFA website indicated that the new desalination system was made possible thanks to funding from Swiss philanthropist Samuel Josefowitz.

Minister: Blackouts from Cancelled Egyptian Gas Deal Should Hit Gaza, Not Israel

Monday, May 14th, 2012

The unintended consequence of the hostile cancellation of Egypt’s natural gas contract with Israel may result in increased blackouts in Gaza. Benjamin Netanyahu’s Environmental Protection Minister Gilad Erdan says Israel should consider cutting its supply of electricity to the Gaza Strip this summer in face of predicted power shortages.

Speaking at the start of Sunday’s cabinet meeting, Erdan said that before he is asked to authorize the use of more pollutants, to meet Israel’s severe fuel shortage and anticipated blackouts this summer, the Gaza Strip—which gets its electricity from the Israel Electric Company—should be taken off the grid.

“Take care of your own needs first,” Erdan told the ministers. “It’s unreasonable that if there’s an electricity shortage, we’ll cut off the supply to Israelis – but not to Gaza, which we left seven years ago and have no responsibility for.”

In a letter Erdan had sent to fellow ministers, he argued that “if there are power shortages in Israel this summer, the supply of electricity to the Gaza Strip should be halted… It represents 4.5 percent of Israeli production.”

“Electricity production will be less than demand this summer,” Erdan told Israel’s Army Radio on Sunday.

“We are looking at using production methods that are more polluting and alternative energy sources like solar but we may still have to have electricity outages,” Edran said.

Referring to late payments by the Palestinian Authority for the 120 megawatts which Israel supplies Gaza, Erdan added, “If we are in that situation it would be absurd for Israelis to be the first ones affected while at the same time we continue to provide electricity to Gaza, while they are not paying.”

Fawzi Barhoum, spokesman of the Islamist movement Hamas which controls Gaza, said Erdan’s “threats… exposed the true face of the occupation.”

“What is required from the Arab countries, and Egypt in particular, is the creation of an Arab, Egyptian safety net for the residents of Gaza in light of the Zionist blackmail,” he added.

Israel’s energy generation was heavily depended on natural gas supplies from Egypt, which have been closed off pending a renegotiations of the 2005 contract.

The Gaza Strip experienced its worst electricity crisis this year, with diminishing fuel supplies from Egypt forcing the shutting down of Gaza’s only power plant.

Gaza experienced power cuts of up to 18 hours a day, but the situation improved after a deal last month between Gaza’s Hamas government and the Palestinian Authority, which agreed to supply Gaza with fuel purchased from Israel.

The PA and Hamas agreed that the cost of the 500,000 liters per day of fuel for the plant would be met from revenue collected from customers by the Gaza electricity company.

Gaza’s electricity company generates 80 megawatts. It receives 120 megawatts from Israel and 80 megawatts from Egypt, which combined only meets about two-thirds of demand.

Erdan accused the Hamas government of punishing its own population by cutting off power to some civilians while keeping the lights on in areas where it enjoys political support.

Erdan said cutting the export of electricity to Gaza would be done only as a result of need and not “collective punishment” of Gaza’s civilian population.

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking-news/minister-blackouts-from-cancelled-egyptian-gas-deal-should-hit-gaza-not-israel/2012/05/14/

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