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September 2, 2014 / 7 Elul, 5774
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Posts Tagged ‘Jewish Heritage’

The Chassidic Route In Poland

Thursday, January 3rd, 2008

         Every year more and more Jewish tourists go to Poland to visit the historic sites of pre-Shoah Jewish heritage. Often, especially if they try to travel alone without a guide, it is a difficult journey. The places are often hard to find or locked. The people in the towns don’t speak English or are not sure of the location you are looking for or sometimes just not very accommodating.


 


         To aid the traveler, The Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland, based in Warsaw, has developed the Chassidic Route.

 

         The aim of the Chassidic Route project is to create an international tourist route joining the cities and towns, located in Southeastern Poland and neighboring countries, with monuments of Jewish culture and religion, of significant importance. Sites of interest will be clearly listed both on location and the Internet for pre-trip planning and research.

 

         The cooperation of the various communities, towns and cities on the Chassidic Route has been very encouraging. They have set up information about the location of Jewish heritage areas on their websites, and in some cases, printed material is available and in others they have opened small museums on the subject.

 

         Monika Kryczyk, director of the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland, said in a recent interview, “We encourage everyone to visit the pages, dedicated to the localities of the Chassidic Route, on the POLIN web portal: Every page contains various pictures and information about the history of Jewish community in given locality.”

 

         Its other goals include the stimulation of the socio-economic development of the region by promoting the multicultural heritage-oriented tourism. The various towns cooperating with the project will provide, through the municipality, informational maps and guides for visitors and some are in the process of setting up museums.

 

         Today the Chassidic Route joins 20 localities of the Lubelskie and Podkarpackie Provinces. There are plans to extend the route and add more localities from the territories of Poland and Ukraine. The following is a list of towns and cities participating in the Chassidic Route: Baligrod, Bilgoraj, Chelm, Cieszanow, Debica, Dynow, Jaroslaw, Krasnik, Lesko, Lezajsk, Lublin, Przemysl, Ropczyce, Rymanow, Sanok, Tarnobrzeg, Ustrzyki Dolne, Wielkie Oczy, Wlodawa and Zamosc.

 

         “Every town and city from Podkarpackie or Lubelskie Provinces, in which the important Jewish communities have lived in the prewar period, may join the Chassidic Route,” Ms Kryczyk said. “We are looking to greatly expand the list in the near future.

 

 



The synagogue building in Zamosc, part of the newly established Chassidic Route.


 

 

         “We hope that the Chassidic Route Project will result in augmenting the tourist and culture attractiveness of the region, and also will help intensifying the local development of those territories.”

 

         The realization of the project assumes both an institutional support from the territorial self-government units and non-governmental organizations, and the building of a solid inter-sector partnership for the benefit of the development of the profiled tourism, which stimulates the local enterprise by providing the infrastructure necessary for the extended tourist movement.

 

         As a result of the project, a set of professionally created materials promoting the Chassidic Route will be prepared. The territorial self-government units and non-governmental organizations in localities on the Chassidic Route will be provided with competence, allowing them to care for the development of regional tourism together.

 

         A case in point is the recent booklet published by the foundation regarding the historic town of Zamosc. At the moment the booklet is only available in Polish but it will be translated into English in the near future and made available from the foundation through the Internet. Zamosc will also be the main site for the celebration of the 11th Judaism Day, which is to take place on January 17, 2008.

 

         The event was prepared by the Committee for Dialogue with Judaism of the Polish Episcopate Council and the Zamosc Diocese, in close cooperation with the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland.

 

         Another project that has recently been finished is the first part of technical documentation of the historical synagogue complex in Krasnik (Lubelskie Province), realized thanks to the financial support of the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. The works, carried out within the framework of the project “Krasnik, our multicultural center – preparation of the documentation making the revitalization of the synagogue complex in Krasnik for cultural purposes possible,” will continue in 2008, co-financed by the Krasnik Town Office.

 

         For more information on Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland and on the Chassidic Route go to, http://fodz.pl/?d=1&l=en. 

Swidin Jewish Cemetery Vandalized Again

Wednesday, March 14th, 2007

Swidin Jewish Cemetery Vandalized Again


 


      Half of the 20 tombstones in the Jewish cemetery of Swidin were broken March 1, according to Albert Stankowski of the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Warsaw. “This was done during the same time as the Claims Conference was visiting in Poland, and I have no doubt that the act against the cemetery was related,” he said.

Stankowksi was referring to a Claims Conference meeting last week with the government about compensation for Jewish property stolen by the Nazis and Communists.

 

      “The articles in the press gave readers the feeling that the Jews were coming to take their property away, and an Evangelical priest in the town thinks the people who did this to the cemetery were reacting to that,” he said.

 

      It was the third time in five years that the cemetery was attacked. Last year, when three tombstones were damaged, Stankowski asked the regional prosecutor to investigate. “The prosecutor told us it was the wind that caused the problem. So I brought it to a higher prosecutor and the case was still under investigation when this destruction happened,” he said. “But I can tell you that the police have shown no interest in really investigating the case.”

 

 


            “Do Not Be Afraid To Know Me”


 


      An exhibition recapitulating an international project, “Do not be afraid to know me” is presented in the Opole town hall. The project was completed by the Opole OHP (Ochotnicze Hufce Pracy) Association in June 2006, in cooperation with the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland. The main goal of the project was to search for traces of Jewish culture in the Opolskie province. In the exhibition, there are photos of the surviving cemeteries and synagogues of the province, taken by participants of the project from Poland, the Czech Republic, Lithuania and Germany.

 

      Relics of Jewish Culture in Opolskie Province, a folder produced with the cooperation of the Foundation, is another article on exhibit. The publication will soon be sent to libraries and museums of the Opolskie province. It can also be obtained from the International Committee of the Opole OHP Association. The European Union Youth Program, Action 1 – Youth for Europe financed the project.

 

Siemiatycze

 

      We are pleased to inform you that the building of the pre-war Jewish religious school in Siemiatycze is regaining its previous splendor while serving the local community. The building was leased by the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland to a local association supporting education and labor market development (Stowarzyszenie Wspierania Edukacji i Rynku Pracy). The association has already renovated the front elevation and parts of the interior of the building, where, in September 2006, a trade school opened.

 

 


Gdansk

 

      The Gdansk branch of the Union of Jewish Communities, together with the Heritage Foundation for Preservation of Jewish Cemeteries (with whom the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland completed a project to renovate the cemetery in Dubienka, Lubelskie province), is finishing the fence around the Jewish cemetery in Gdansk.

 

 


Losice

 

      We are glad to announce the latest update to the website devoted to the Losice Jewish cemetery: www.zchor.org/losice/losice.htm – “We Remember Jewish Losice.” It is the testimony of Eddie Weinstein, and is one chapter taken from his book, Quenched Steel, The Story of an Escape from Treblinka (Yad Vashem, 2002). Also included is a tribute by Weinstein to colleagues and family members without whom, he acknowledges, he may not have survived.


 


Brzeziny

 

      The monument commemorating the Jews of Brzeziny (Lodzkie province) was vandalized. A racist graffito defaced the plaque devoted to the Holocaust’s victims. The Jewish cemetery in Brzeziny (Reymont Street) was probably established in the 16th century, and had been used until the Holocaust. It was devastated during World War II and the savagery continued even after the war, when a sand mine was located at the area of the burial grounds.

 

      Witnesses claim the sand, mixed with human bones, was used to produce material to build prefabricated apartment houses. Many tombstones were stolen and used for construction works, e.g. paving banks of fishing ponds. In 1992, at the initiative of the descendants of Brzeziny’s Jews, the area of the cemetery was fenced. Sara Zyskind described the story of the townsfolk of Brzeziny shtetl in her book, Light in the Valley of Tears. Information gathered from http://www.kirkuty.xip.pl/brzeziny.htm.

Relics and Restoration

Wednesday, January 10th, 2007

        As of December 4, 2006, an exhibition recapitulating the international project, “Do Not be Afraid to Know Me” is being presented in the Opole town hall. The project was completed by the Opole OHP (Ochotnicze Hufce Pracy) Association in June 2006, in cooperation with the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland.

 

         The main goal of the undertaking was to uncover traces of Jewish culture in the Opolskie province. In the display there are photos of the surviving cemeteries and synagogues of the province, taken by participants of the project from Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania and Germany.

 

         Another result of the project is a folder “Relics of Jewish Culture in Opolskie Province” expanded in cooperation with the Foundation. The publication will soon be sent to libraries and museums of the Opolskie province. It can also be obtained from the International Cooperation Committee of the Opole OHP Association. The project was financed by the European Union Youth Program, Action 1 – Youth for Europe.

 

Siemiatycze


 


         We are pleased to inform you that the building of the pre-war Jewish religious school in Siemiatycze, leased by the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland to a local association supporting education and labor market development (Stowarzyszenie Wspierania Edukacji i Rynku Pracy), is regaining its previous splendor while serving the local community. The association has already renovated the front elevation and part of the interior of the building, where, in September 2006, a trade school was opened.

 

Gdansk


 


    The Gdansk branch of the Union of Jewish Communities, together with the Heritage Foundation for Preservation of Jewish Cemeteries (with which the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland completed a project of renovating the cemetery in Dubienka, lubelskie province), is finishing the fence around the Jewish cemetery in Gdansk.

 

Losice


 


         We are glad to announce to you the latest update to the website devoted to the Losice Jewish cemetery www.zchor.org/losice/losice.htm  “We Remember Jewish Losice.” It is the testimony of Eddie Weinstein, one chapter taken from his book, Quenched Steel, the Story of an Escape from Treblinka, Yad Vashem, 2002. Also included is a tribute by Mr. Weinstein to colleagues and family members without whom, he acknowledges, he may not have survived.

 

Brzeziny


 


         Vandals desecrated a monument commemorating the Jews of Brzeziny (lodzkie province). Racist graffiti appeared on the plaque devoted to the Holocaust’s victims. The Jewish cemetery in Brzeziny (Reymont St.) was probably established in the 16th century and had been used until the Holocaust. It was savagely devastated during World War II, and even after the war, when a sand mine was located at the area of the necropolis.

 

         Witnesses claim that sand mixed with human bones was used for producing prefabricates designed for building apartment houses. Many tombstones were stolen and used for construction works, e.g. paving banks of fishing ponds. In 1992, on the initiative of the descendants of Brzeziny’s Jews, the area of the cemetery was fenced. Sara Zyskind described the story of the townsfolk of Brzeziny shtetl in her book, Light in the Valley of Tears.

 

Resources:


         1. The Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland


         2. www.kirkuty.xip.pl/brzeziny.htm 

Report From Foundation For The Preservation Of The Jewish Heritage In Poland

Wednesday, September 13th, 2006

       For the last two weeks I have written about cemetery restoration in Poland. This week I present a report from the Foundation for the Preservation of the Jewish Heritage in Poland, which has done tremendous work in the field. The first half of 2006 has been a busy time for the Foundation for the Preservation of the Jewish Heritage in Poland. The Foundation has cleared up ten Jewish cemeteries and fenced four of them, erected monuments or memorial plaques commemorating pre-war Jewish communities in five towns and is currently restoring four synagogues.

 

         Cemetery restoration has always been a priority for the Foundation. In Poland there are 1200 Jewish cemeteries, most of them totally neglected and forgotten; they are now begging for restoration. Taking care of Jewish cemeteries in Poland is an enormous challenge, which requires not only energy and perfect management, but also a considerable amount of money. The Foundation could not carry this gigantic task alone. Many of its restoration projects are therefore conducted in cooperation with another organizations, such as the Heritage Foundation for Preservation of Jewish Cemeteries (Avoteinu), the PJCRP, the Yad LeZehava Holocaust Research Institute, the Lomza Jewish Cemetery Foundation, and several small Polish organizations created by Polish enthusiasts who care about the Jewish cultural and religious heritage. A complete list is to be found at the Foundation’s website www.fodz.pl.

 

         The Foundation is also cooperating with landsmanshaften from all over the world and many private donors.

 

         Restoring cemeteries is not the only way of saving the memory of Polish Jews from falling into oblivion. In 2006 the Foundation participated in five projects commemorating pre-war Jewish communities in Jaroslaw, Koszalin, Wielen (Filhene), Slupsk (Stolp) and Mogilno. In Jaroslaw, Koszalin, Wielen and Stolp monuments were erected, and in Mogilno a memorial plaque was fixed.

 

         From among these, the Slupsk commemoration project has been the most spectacular. The Foundation supervised the erecting of a monument that is a reconstructed section of the fence of a huge, pre-war Slupsk synagogue that was destroyed by the Nazis in 1938 during Kristallnacht. The monument was founded by the descendants of Rabbi Max Joseph, the rabbi of Slupsk from 1902 to 1936, and erected by the Foundation in cooperation with the municipality. The ceremony of unveiling the monument was attended by Rabbi Max Joseph’s family, representatives of the Jewish community in Poland, the president of the city of Slupsk and his deputy, the consul general of the Republic of Germany, and a representative of the local bishop. A letter sent by Israel’s ambassador to Poland was read. The ceremony was also witnessed by a crowd of Slupsk citizens and several representatives of local media. The monument, erected in the very center of the city, is an important testimony to the city’s engagement in the task of commemorating its Jewish community, which for centuries had been an integral part of Slupsk’s social, religious and cultural life.

 

Synagogues


 


         Restoring synagogues in Poland is very difficult; the Jewish community in Poland is very small, and not only unable to financially support all the restoration, but actually does not need that many synagogue buildings. Therefore the foundation, besides coordinating construction and renovation is also establishing new functions for the restored buildings. The aim is to make the synagogue buildings useful for local people and, at the same time, preserve their dignity as reminders of the bygone Jewish world.

 

         The foundation is currently restoring four synagogues, all of which are registered monuments: a Renaissance, 17th century synagogue in Zamosc, a Neogothic 19th century synagogue in Ziebice, and two synagogues in Krasnik: a 17th century Baroque great synagogue and a 19th century small synagogue. The condition of these buildings when they were returned to the foundation was catastrophic – roofs were leaking and about to fall. Today all the essential construction work is completed and the foundation is gathering funds for continuing restoration.

 

         The Zamosc synagogue is the most splendid Renaissance synagogue in Poland. Together with the Old City of Zamosc, it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Foundation, together with the city’s authorities and local non-governmental organizations, intends to turn the renovated synagogue into a center that will house various local initiatives, especially those connected with culture and heritage.

 

         It will also feature Jews who contributed to the intellectual, religious and cultural history of the region such as Icchak Leibusz Perec or the Dubno Maggid.

 

         Detailed information regarding the Foundation’s activities can be found at its website, www.fodz.pl.

The Foundation For The Preservation Of Jewish Heritage In Poland

Wednesday, January 18th, 2006

After I wrote about the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland last week, many people asked me to report more on this group and the important work they are doing.

 

The Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland was established by the Union of Jewish Communities in Poland (Union) and the World Jewish Restitution Organization (WJRO) to manage the restitution process for Jewish communal properties and properties that were returned as well as to protect Jewish cemeteries and commemorate other historical sites of Jewish heritage in Poland.

 

Jews enriched and contributed to the general culture, tradition and spiritual heritage in Poland for hundreds of years. Today, traces of this once great heritage are rediscovered in neglected synagogues, schools, hospitals and cemeteries.

 

The foundation’s fundamental role is to recover the properties and save the memory of the thriving prewar Jewish community of 3.5 million people, as well as to represent the interests of both the Jewish community in Poland and Polish Jews living all over the world.

 

The foundation’s goals are to work with government agencies in order to reclaim properties that were owned before the war by the many Jewish religious communities and other Jewish legal entities (based on the Law on the Relationship between the State and the Union of Jewish Communities of 1997), and to provide legal services for the regulatory procedure. After reclaiming the properties, the foundation is responsible for their management and sees to any preservation and renovations that bear special religious or historical significance.

 

The foundation collects archival documentation and evidence for the regulatory procedure. They also work at the renovation and upkeep of Jewish cemeteries.

 

Thanks to the cooperation of international institutions and private donors, they have recently succeeded with projects at the cemeteries in Strzegowo, Kozienice, Zakopane and Poznan – literally saving them from desecration and disappearance.

 

They have been revitalizing returned properties and bringing them back for Jewish interest groups, as well as conducting scholarly research concerning the cultural heritage of Polish Jews.

 

Due to the need for cooperation with the local populace, they also promote tolerance, human rights and the multicultural dimension of Jewish historical sites in local communities.

 

The foundation’s greatest challenge is being able to raise funds for the effective revitalization of returned properties – especially the ones of great historical value and significance, as well as Jewish cemeteries. Unfortunately, during the past 60 years these sites were neglected even when they were used for various public purposes. The foundation asserts that these synagogues, mikvahs and pre-funeral houses are an important factor in regional development, as landmarks for remembrance and the dignity of the Jewish communities.

 

The foundation would like to work together with local NGOs in the cultural field in order to integrate Jewish memorial sites into the historical landscape of given regions. In this way, hopefully, the Polish community will start to view Jewish sites as part of its Polish national historical heritage. Consequently the level of protection and respect for Jewish sites will grow, which in turn will protect such places from vandalism and desecration.

 

Some of the current projects are:

 

A plan to restore a pre-funeral house designed by Erich Mendelsson in Olsztyn (north-eastern Poland), together with “The Borussia Cultural Society”.

 

Together with the Association of Zamosk Jewry and with regional authorities, the foundation will renovate the old synagogue in Zamosk – one of the most important monuments of Renaissance architecture in Poland, listed on the World UNESCO Heritage registry and the only preserved synagogue in Poland established by Sephardic Jews exiled from Spain.

 

Together with the Carpathian Foundation, plans are in the works for arranging a tourist route across the Jewish Galicia region.

 

The foundation has applied for support for those projects from the funds of the European Union.

Together with the association of Rimanov chassidim, the foundation plans to renovate the historic Rymanów synagogue. Together with local authorities, the Opole University and the Hatikvah Association, they are working on an educational project for schools, focused on Jewish cemeteries in the Opole region. The renovation plans at cemeteries include Wysokie Mazowieckie, Mszczonów, Mielec, Leczna, Kolno, Przemysl and Dubienka.




The foundation’s mission of heritage preservation not only aims at physical renovation activities but also at the restoration of memory. For this reason they consider education for heritage and education for tolerance to be a very important component of their activities. The foundation has invited various experts to develop new educational projects with their support.

Kneidlach And Machine Guns

Friday, January 30th, 2004

Kneidlach And Machine Guns: G.I. Joseph - Ours To Fight For: American Jews In The Second World War’

 

The Museum of Jewish Heritage: A Living Memorial to the Holocaust

18 First Place, Battery Park City, N.Y., N.Y.; (212) 509 6130.

Sunday-Wednesday, 9a.m.-5 p.m.; Thursday, 9 a.m.-8 p.m.; Friday, 9a.m.-3 p.m.
$7 adults, $5 children.



Introducing Menachem Wecker, Guest Columnist, who will henceforth appear regularly on this page.


The wide variety of bric-a-brac that fills a soldier’s pockets, backpack and other gear becomes the medium of exploration in Tim O’Brien’s “The Things They Carried,” his examination of Vietnam era soldiers. A writer who fought in Vietnam and who now is a visiting
creative writing professor and endowed chair at Southwest Texas State University, O’Brien uses the things soldiers carry as a window into the soldiers’ innermost desires and dreams.

The special exhibition at the Museum of Jewish Heritage “Ours To Fight For: American Jews In The Second World War” pursues a similar tactic concerning the Jewish soldier at war, with particular attention to the 550,000 Jews who fought in World War II. Jewish soldiers, to be
sure, found a twofold struggle confounding them; beyond the horrors of war that O’Brien describes, anti-Semitism arose all too readily, while kashrus was much harder to come by.

“Ours To Fight For” casts a spotlight on candles lit in foxholes along with wine and salami sent by Mom to welcome the Sabbath. The Jewish military paraphernalia - Tefillin, candles, and assorted other ceremonial objects - show how dearly some cling to religious identity, even
amidst chaotic machine gun fire.

Rather than preserve the traditional, remote observation point, the exhibit makes some fascinating curatorial decisions, which heave the viewer directly into battle. The viewer becomes eyewitness in a journey that calls for navigation through a life-sized diorama of tight,
claustrophobic spaces of wooden-planked barracks, a uniform closet, an old-style movie theater and caged, jail-like structures, all set on cold, concrete floors.

On the waterside in Battery Park, the Museum of Jewish Heritage is divided between a permanent collection in one building - which contains three chronologically arranged floors addressing the pre-war era, the Holocaust and then Zionism - and a newly opened building which houses special exhibits in the Robert M. Morgenthau Wing. A memorial rock garden
that uses stones, trees and soil to express the purity and primacy of nature, Garden of Stones surrounds the museum and lends it a sculptural feel.

Where the younger generation finds World War II reducible to a set of old photographs, assorted memoirs and The Diary of a Young Girl, the Museum of Jewish Heritage clings fiercely to Holocaust images that sadly fade away with every survivor’s passing. The Museum
employs a multimedia network of video and sound documentation to enliven and to personalize the historical data, but as viewers walk from room to room, they feel that they see merely a small part of the whole, while video reels and sounds permeate the space. Unfortunately, one never sees or hears everything.

This distinct feeling of partial portraits tragically neglects the unknown masses of victims. This omission seems especially important now to American Jews in the wake of the war on terrorism. The viewer will do well to forget the questions of war, though. “Ours To Fight For”
pays tribute to the soldiers, who unfortunately walk too often in anonymity. “My feeling was, I wanted [the Germans] to know that the bombs that were dropping,” said Bernard Branson, U.S. Army Air Corps, “there was a Jew up there doing it.”

As the viewer sifts through a closet of uniforms, army boots and helmets, with glass cases of Kiddush cups, Tefillin, candles and mezuzahs embedded within, he distinctly relates to the torn identity of the Jewish soldier. “I saw more men die cursing or asking for their mothers, than praying,” says Photographer’s Mate 2C Paul Guttman, US Navy.

An unlikely juxtaposition further complicates matters. T4 Marvin Weissman’s bag shows a tool of war irrevocably intertwined with one of beauty. “I had room for my clarinet and my Tommy gun on a little shelf to the right,” he says. This installation recalls a case in the museum’s permanent collection featuring a Talith and violin. Symbolically, one sees Jewish identity, hope and the stark evils of war, thrown together in a distinctly realistic manner. The Goya-like pragmatism frightens and inspires. In an interrogation with an anonymous German POW, Captain Bentley Kassal, U.S. Army Air Forces asked if he ever anticipated capture by a Jewish soldier. “I could tell the animosity and hatred in his eyes,” he said. “I made my point.”

And that point still endures today. Through the accounts of capture as “my vision of Dante’s Inferno,” through the indescribable “sense of what it’s like to be in fear, every day, all day,” Jewish soldiers stand firmly, not to mourn, but to remind and to teach. “You just don’t
have an opportunity to mourn,” says Pfc. Marvin Margoshes, US Army. “You just don’t have time.”

Images of the powerful Jew - the armed Jew – overflow from the museum’s third floor permanent collection on Zionism, into the special exhibition hall. Underlying all the pain and the sadness and the losses that can never be repaid, stands the modern Israeli soldier that Rav A. Y. Kook never saw, but dreamed of.

The exhibition closes with the testimony of the troops who liberated the camps. One soldier recounts speaking with a nun who was so visibly shaken upon discovering he was Jewish, that he knew something awful had occurred. Like that soldier, the viewer learned as if for the first time, of the unfathomable horrors of the death camps, and thus, the exhibit truly leads the viewer through the soldiers’ experiences. It further underscores the help Americans provided to survivors in the war’s aftermath.

And finally, the Robert M. Morgenthau Wing opens onto a sunlit room with tall windows overlooking the Statue of Liberty. The beautiful waves and symbolism offer hope in the wake of a frightful war that – close to 60 years later - we are still fighting.

Visit the MJH online at http://www.mjhnyc.org/index.htm and for more information on “Ours To Fight For” including short videos, see http://www.ourstofightfor.org/index.jsp


Menachem Wecker edits the Arts and Culture Section of the Yeshiva University Commentator. As an artist, he has trained at the Massachusetts College of Art.
He may be reached at wecker@yu.edu  

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/sections/kneidlach-and-machine-guns/2004/01/30/

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