web analytics
August 25, 2016 / 21 Av, 5776

Posts Tagged ‘Shabbos’

Minhagim Of Shabbos Tisha B’Av

Thursday, August 11th, 2016

This year Tisha B’Av falls out on Shabbos. Since we do not allow fasting or aveilus on Shabbos, Tisha B’Av is observed the following day. The halachos for a pushed-off Tisha B’Av differ a bit from those of a regular Tisha B’Av.

The Shulchan Aruch writes (Orach Chayim 559:9) that one who makes a bris milah on Sunday on a pushed-off Tisha B’Av may eat and wash his body after Mincha since it is a Yom Tov for him (the same applies to his wife, the mohel, and the sandek). If he makes it on a regular Tisha B’Av, though, he may not eat or wash his body.

When Tisha B’Av is pushed off, we must make sure to say havdalah in shemoneh esrei or say “baruch hamavdil bein kodesh l’chol” before performing melachah. We may only say havdalah over a cup of wine on Sunday night, after the fast. We do say a berachah on a fire on Motzei Shabbos, however, if possible.

(If a person will not be fasting on Sunday for whatever reason, he should say havdalah on a cup prior to eating. A man who is fasting may recite havdalah for a woman who is not fasting, and she can drink the wine for him. He has no further obligation to say havdalah again on Sunday night.)

On a regular Tisha B’Av, a person (even a small child) may not study most areas of Torah because “pekudei Hashem yesharim mesamchei lev – the Torah is just and brings joy to one’s heart.” He may, however, study parts of the Torah that discuss the churban and aveilus. The Rema writes (Orach Chayim 553:2) that it is also customary not to study Torah on Erev Tisha B’Av starting from chatzos. If Erev Tisha B’Av falls out on Shabbos, we should not learn the Pirkei Avos that is customarily learned on Shabbos afternoon, he writes.

However, many Acharonim disagree. The Mishnah Berurah cites the Taz who argues that studying Torah is permitted at this time and concludes that one can rely on this opinion since there are opinions that one may study Torah on Erev Tisha B’Av even if it does not fall out on Shabbos.

The Biur Halacha, for example, cites the Ma’amar Mordechai who rules that one may study Torah on Erev Tisha B’Av. In fact, the Ma’amar Mordechai states that if he weren’t afraid, he would permit studying Torah on Tisha B’Av itself. He says that in any event people do not mourn on Tisha B’Av the way they should (he lived in the late 1700’s). They go out to the markets and speak about mundane matters (sichos chulin); he argues that it is clearly better to study Torah than to do these things. He maintains that the Chachamim only forbade studying Torah so that people can properly mourn for the churban habayis. If they aren’t doing that, though, we should allow them to study Torah. He concludes that he won’t permit studying Torah on Tisha B’Av itself since doing so is a clear prohibition. He does, however, permit studying Torah on Erev Tisha B’Av even if it falls out during the week.

He states further that certainly one is permitted to study Torah on Shabbos when Tisha B’Av falls on that day since there is no reason not to permit doing so. In response to the Magen Avraham’s opinion that since we can study select Torah subjects (related to mourning), there’s no reason to permit studying Torah in general, he argues that many people do not study these subjects with the same intensity as they do subjects they regularly study. As the adage goes, a person only learns what his heart desires.

There are some who forbid studying even permitted Torah subjects in a deep manner (derech pilpul). However, the Kaf Hachaim (Orach Chaim siman 553:17) says in the name of the Chasam Sofer that when Tisha BA’v falls out on Shabbos, one may learn these subjects intensely.

Rav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv, zt”l, has been quoted as ruling that father/son learning programs should also convene on a Shabbos which is Erev Tisha B’Av.

May we be zoche to be mourn the churban and be zoche to see the rebuilding of the Beis Hamikdash. Amen.

Rabbi Raphael Fuchs

Shabbos Mevorchim Menachem Av

Friday, July 29th, 2016

On this coming Shabbos, Parshas Pinchas, we bentch the new month of Menachem Av. Rosh Chodesh is observed on Yom Shishi (Friday, August 5). The letters of Av (aleph and beis) are symbolic of Edom (Rome) and Bavel (Babylon), the empires that laid ruin to our beloved Jerusalem and holy Temples, on the ninth of Av. Even the sun and the moon mourned Yerushalayim at the time of its devastation by hiding their light.

This date in history saw desolation visited upon our people in many forms. Among other calamities, the Spanish Inquisition was signed off on and the first transports were dispatched to the gas chambers in the Second World War.

The element of the month of Av is fire and the heavenly body ruling the month is the sun. The sun has both the power to heal and to burn. At the end of days, the sun will be directed to heal the good and destroy evil and it is then that the tes of Tisha B’Av will revert to tov – good.

Tes (9) is the holy letter associated with Av. Double it and we get 18, the numerical value of cheit (sin). Ches (8), tes (9), and aleph (1) = 18. At the same time, chai (life) also equals 18, which illustrates that true remorsefulness for cheit engenders chai – life.

Astrologically, both positive and negative aspects delineate the nature of each month. Man’s temperament is to a degree shaped by the mazal of his birth month, yet he has the choice to wield his tendencies in an adverse or efficacious manner.

Leo, the lion, rules Av, while the faculty of hearing is its nature. Those born under the sign of Leo are blessed with the traits of creativity and generosity and are a strong-willed lot. “Strong-willed” can, however, work to one’s disadvantage, as when it translates to obstinacy, arrogance and self-centeredness. These defined the attributes of the Meraglim who concocted bold-faced untruths about the land they were entrusted with surveying. The people hearing those false reports believed the lies and cried senselessly, setting the stage for future tears to be shed in earnest when tragedy would strike Am Yisrael again and again on the anniversary of this date.

The eminent tzaddik and visionary, Rav Yaakov Yitzchok Horowitz, also known as the Chozeh (seer) of Lublin, was the son of R’ Avrohom Eliezer HaLevi (a descendant of the Shela HaKadosh) and Mattil, the daughter of Rabbi Yaakov Koppel Likover.

The Chozeh was a disciple of the Mezritcher Maggid and learned at the side of luminaries such as Reb Elimelech of Lizhensk, Reb Shmelke of Nikolsburg, Reb Zusha of Hanipoli and Reb Levi Yitzchok m’Berdichiv. His yahrtzeit falls on Tisha B’Av, the ninth of Menachem Av.

When a talmid of his unburdened his heart about his state of poverty and need to marry off his grown daughter, the Chozeh advised the poor chassid to travel to a certain town where Hashem would help him come into the money he would need to do a fine shidduch. The talmid did just as his rebbe advised and set out on his journey forthwith. Arriving at his destination, he settled into the local guesthouse and carried on his regular itinerary of davening and learning throughout the day.

After a couple days, the proprietor approached this guest who curiously wasn’t seen interacting with others. When the man explained what had brought him there, the proprietor sighed and said he wished he could be of help but had recently sustained a crushing blow to his holdings. Following a lucrative business transaction, he had failed to lock his vault that had been filled with the proceeds of his deal and soon found himself totally cleaned out. Questioning his hired help got him nowhere and unexpectedly he found himself destitute.

Rachel Weiss

Legislature Wraps Up Session On Shabbos

Thursday, June 23rd, 2016

State lawmakers wrapped up the 238th legislative session over Shabbos, which prevented observant Jewish lawmakers, few as they are, from voting on some of the most important measures of the session. Most lawmakers left Albany around 3 p.m. Friday to be home with their families for Shabbos.

One lawmaker who probably couldn’t care less was Assemblyman Phillip Goldfeder (D – Far Rockaway, Queens), who announced earlier this month that he would not seek re-election. Goldfeder served five years in the Assembly. He told The Jewish Press, “This is not where I want to be at this time in my life.”

The 35-year-old Queens native recently welcomed his third child, a boy named Gabriel. Almost every night while in Albany Goldfeder could be seen saying goodnight to his children on his laptop via video chat and voice call services. On his Facebook page Goldfeder wrote, “This was a difficult decision, but I am looking forward to the next chapter in my career and hopefully spending more time at home with my new son and entire family.”

This session was particularly uneventful for Goldfeder, ranked 95 on the seniority list out of 150 members, and he leaves a legacy of bills languishing in various committees. Of the 31 bills he sponsored this year, 23 were one-house bills, which means there was no Senate sponsor and no hope of going any further other than sparking copy for a news release. Four other bills passed the Senate but Goldfeder could not get those measures out of various committees. Three other measures were held in committees in both houses and Goldfeder managed to get one bill passed in the Assembly but that was held up in the Senate. While he is known for being focused on constituent issues, he had a zero batting average this year in the legislature.

It should be noted that he did have three bills signed into law by the governor last year.

Let’s face it – the frustration of not being able to produce meaningful legislation is enough to make anyone want to retire early from the legislature.

In other news, an agreement on the oversight of the East Ramapo school district’s academic and fiscal improvement program will be going to the governor’s desk for approval. A team of monitors appointed by the state education commissioner will not have veto power over decisions made by the board. Three million dollars has been appropriated by the legislature and the governor to pay for the costs associated with the monitors and school-related expenses.

The state education commissioner will have the final decision over all matters relating to the school district, which is controlled by parents who send their children to yeshivas and other private schools.

The one-year experiment will shorten the school budget timeline by a month for planning a fiscal plan.

“We see as more positive way in a way,” bill’s sponsor Assemblywoman Ellen Jaffee (D – Suffern, Rockland County) told The Jewish Press. “It’s not an everyday kind of veto, which the Board was very uncomfortable about. This is about the major, important issues of fiscal responsibility, collaboration, and guidance. Hopefully, all that working together will bring the community together.”

The East Ramapo school district comprises several Orthodox Jewish communities including parts of the towns of Haverstraw, Ramapo, and Clarkstown. The portion of the town of Ramapo that includes the East Ramapo schools are the municipalities and communities of Spring Valley, Kaser, New Square, New Hempstead, Wesley Hills, Pomona, Monsey, Airmont, and Hillcrest. The hamlet of New City in the town of Clarkstown is included in the school district.

The board members are Yehuda Weissmandl, president; Harry Grossman, vice president; and Yonah Rothman, Jacob Lefkowitz, Moshe Hopstein, Yakov Engel, Pierre Germain, Sabrina Charles-Pierre, and Bernard Charles, Jr.

Marc Gronich

My Shabbos Reverie

Thursday, June 23rd, 2016

Saturday afternoon. Home from shul. Feeling euphoric because I spent the morning davening before enjoying a delightful Kiddush.

Now, having changed into more casual clothes and having had pleasant conversations with family members, I sit on a couch. I read a little bit and I think.

I do this every Shabbos. It’s my Shabbos routine. As I gaze out a window my mind goes off in all directions but I usually start by reflecting on my past – my childhood, my family, places I’ve lived or been to, friends through the years, departed ones, and so forth. It’s nostalgic in both comforting and sobering ways.

After I’ve reviewed my life for a few minutes I wander into deeper territory. It can be the meaning of the week’s parshah, Torah values, Jewish history, anti-Semitism, the human race, the world situation, the future – there’s a whole array of things I contemplate.

A subject I frequently revisit is one I find so bewildering: Creation. How everything came to be and why everything is the way it is.

Majestic, enigmatic, and infinitely awe-inspiring in its grandeur, the universe is a work of art. Its canvas is an unfathomably large firmament, and with a billion trillion stars and a hundred billion galaxies and swirling dust and gases and spinning planets and inferable but unobservable dark matter it’s not just a celestial extravaganza but an inscrutable magnum opus.

The universe is living and growing, with gravity keeping planets and stars and galaxies from falling through space and letting them orbit or rotate or move in wondrous synchronicity.

And of course the breathtaking beauty of our world, with its magnificent variety and abundance of nature and life is awe-inspiring in its own right.

The very existence of human beings – with thoughts, intelligence, imagination, creativity, emotions – affirms my belief in the Almighty. Scientists have their hypotheses for how human life developed but is it not inevitable that a universe with intelligent design would contain intelligent life therein?

Cosmologists adhere to the laws of the universe and base their work on observational data to come up with all sorts of theories as to the origin and development of the universe. General relativity, quantum mechanics, and string theory are all impressive but I think they fail when it comes to looking at the big picture – the “why” of everything.

Why did the universe form? Why are there laws of the universe? Why were conditions just right for life on earth? Why do we have everything we need to help us survive and thrive and realize our dreams?

I try not only to imagine the genesis of it all – with blinding blasts of light and supersonic booms and vivid kaleidoscopes of celestial patterns, phenomena, and colors – but also to view it through the prism of our Torah.

I attempt to seek affirmation of a Supreme Being by contemplating how certain natural phenomena could be divine hints of what we humans are capable of achieving.

For example, the bright orb of the sun may tell us we can create a light bulb.

And visual stories of dreams may tell us we can put images on a plane other than the mind – a screen, for example, as we do for motion pictures.

And the mind with its intricacies of neurons and synapses and the networks in which information is transmitted may tell us we can invent computers.

Could it be just an accident that nature may be used as a metaphor for inventing or is the Almighty trying to help us out?

After a while I’m in a tizzy. I’ve enjoyed my Sabbath ruminations but my inability to crystallize it in more than abstract terms makes my head whirl.

It’s time for my Shabbos nap.

Harvey Rachlin

Shabbos Energy

Thursday, May 12th, 2016

Last week I spent Shabbos with my brother Rav Eckstein, a rav in a yeshiva in central Israel. He was planning a special Oneg Shabbos for his talmidim with the honored presence of the rosh yeshiva so we knew that our Shabbos seudah would be shorter than usual to allow him to get back to the yeshiva in time.

We were asleep when he returned, but the next morning, although he claimed that the Oneg Shabbos had been a tremendous success, it was obvious that something was bothering him.

As I’m also the menahel of a boy’s school he decided to confide in me and ask my advice.

A few weeks ago a group of boys had decided to organize their own Oneg Shabbos. They had bought some drinks and snacks and after they had finished learning on Leil Shabbos they went into a room and sang together for a while. The Mashgiach who happened to be there heard them and joined them, and together they spent an inspiring evening singing and telling divrei Torah into the early hours of the morning.

Rav Eckstein decided to ask Shimon, who seemed the leader of this group of boys, to be in charge of organizing their upcoming class Oneg Shabbos. He gave him money and his credit card in case it wasn’t enough and instructed him to buy some cakes, nuts, nosh and some drinks apart from energy drinks and to set it all out in the room where they would be holding the Oneg Shabbos. He had heard that at their previous Oneg Shabbos they had all been drinking these energy drinks which were definitely not suitable for an official yeshiva Oneg Shabbos.

When Rav Eckstein arrived back at the yeshiva on Leil Shabbos, he opened the door and to his horror he saw the table nicely laid with an energy drink next to every place setting. He immediately called Shimon over and, although he was seething inside at the boy’s chutzpah, this wasn’t time for a confrontation; the rosh yeshiva was due any second, so he simply told him to get rid of all the cans of drink. He and his friends opened all the cans and poured the drink into the waiting cups and threw all the cans away.

Apart from that, the Oneg was a great success with inspiring divrei Torah and singing until late.

“But what should I do?” my brother asked me. “Apart from the outright chutzpah of the boy in buying something I distinctly told him not to buy, those drinks also cost a lot of money, far more than the usual drinks we have on such occasions.”

I told him he was right not to make a big scene at the Oneg itself. By having to get rid of the cans, all the boys had understood that these drinks were just not suitable for such an occasion without him having to hammer it home and it wouldn’t happen again. What to do about the boy? I suggested he waited to see what he says when he returns his credit card and the receipts on Sunday.

On Sunday afternoon my brother called me and said, “You’ll never guess what happened. Shimon brought me back my credit card and the receipts for what he’d bought. As I feared, it was quite a hefty amount. I asked him why he had bought the exact drinks I had told him not to buy. He stared at me totally blankly as though he didn’t understand what on earth I was saying. So I repeated, I told you to buy any drinks apart from those energy-drinks. And in any case, didn’t you realize just how expensive those drinks are.

Ann Goldberg

Shabbos Mevorchim Iyar

Friday, May 6th, 2016

We bentch Rosh Chodesh Iyar on Shabbos Parshas Acharei, the 14th day of the Omer, with Rosh Chodesh falling on Yom Rishon and Yom Sheini (Sunday and Monday, May 8 and 9). With the glow of Pesach still lingering, we count the days of the Omer to bolster us spiritually in preparation for the most extraordinary event in the history of mankind – our binding with Hashem at Mattan Torah in Sivan.

The acronym of Iyar stands for Ani (aleph) Hashem (double yud) Rofecha (reish) – I am Hashem your Healer (Shemos 15:26). It was in this month that we were introduced to the holiness of Shabbos, with woman accorded the distinct honor and privilege of performing the mitzvah of candlelighting to usher it in. And as any Shabbos observer will affirm, there is nothing quite as therapeutic and healing as Shabbos!

With the full moon of Iyar, the mahn began to fall from Heaven to nourish Bnei Yisrael in the zechus of Moshe Rabbeinu, the well of Miriam further serving up spiritual fortification on their unprecedented journey through the wilderness.

The sign of the powerful bull (shor) is symbolic of Iyar (Taurus), while the part of the body representative of the month is the neck. And a stiff-necked people we were when we soon stubbornly insisted on having our culinary cravings satisfied, demanding meat on our menu to boot. No surprise that the earthly element of Iyar induces a yearning for physical comfort.

But hope comes alive with the vav (6), the Hebrew letter associated with Iyar. For the ramrod stance of stubbornness can actually be a positive attribute – exemplified by Yosef HaTzaddik (the sixth of the Seven Holy Shepherds), who refused to allow himself to be ensnared by the enticements of Potiphar’s wife.

Iyar’s letters transposed spell yira – fear. “Reishis chochma yiras Hashem, The beginning of wisdom lies in the fear of G-d” (Proverbs 7:1).

Lag B’Omer, jubilantly celebrated on the 33rd day of the Omer, the 18th of Iyar, literally and figuratively lights up the month. This day marks the cessation of the merciless plague that tragically claimed the lives of 24,000 students of Rabi Akiva. Exceptionally dedicated Torah scholars, they were lacking in one vital trait: unity.

Enter the holy Tanna, Rabi Shimon Bar Yochai, one of the disciples of Rabi Akiva who, despite the rigors of the Roman exile, revived the Torah that had been all but forgotten following the terrible scourge.

For thirteen years, Rabi Shimon lived in a cave with his son Rabi Elazar, evading the death decree that had been placed on his head by the Romans. Hashem provided them with sustenance by way of a miraculous sprouting of a carob tree and the emergence of a fresh water spring. To preserve the clothing on their backs which would necessitate long-term wear, R’ Shimon and his son made use of them only while engaged in prayer. For the balance of their day, spent in learning Torah, they sat on the ground submerged in sand up to their necks. Eliyahu HaNavi visited twice daily to learn with them. It was during this time that the Tanna attained the pinnacle of wisdom in sodos haTorah.

On the 18th day of Iyar, the 33rd day of the Omer, the sun was held in abeyance on the horizon as the holy Tanna R’ Shimon lay bare the mystical revelations of Kaballah. Only at the completion of this sacred task was the sun given divine clearance to set, and the tzaddik‘s soul ascended to the heavens. As he was carried aloft to the outdoors, his bed soared heavenward, ringed by flames of fire, and a voice in the celestial spheres was heard to announce the impending hilulah of R’ Shimon Bar Yochai.

Rachel Weiss

Beyond Politics: Shabbos with Mr. Cruz

Wednesday, April 20th, 2016

I read Nick Muzin’s heartfelt piece about his friend and boss Senator Ted Cruz and Jews and decided to echo it with one of my own experiences with Cruz – from before he was a presidential candidate, or even a senator.

For many years off and on I attended the first day or two of CPAC – the annual massive gathering of American conservatives – in Washington. It started midweek and ran through Saturday night, but, of course, I would have to leave midway to get back to New York before Shabbos.

In 2012, hearing of a group that was bringing a number of Jewish college students to CPAC, I called the leaders and told them that if they would urge the kids to attend, I would organize a private Shabbos program onsite – meals and davening and leining. “SHABBAT@CPAC” was an instant success and Shabbat meal registration is now an option on CPAC’s official program.

That first CPAC Shabbos was revelatory. We hoped for 20-25 people, but ended up with well over 100. (Fortunately, a magnificent spread for the entire Shabbos was supplied by my friend Yanky Brach, who insisted on providing lavish, simcha-worthy food for even more people than that, because “You never know – and you don’t want to turn anybody away from Shabbos!”.) It was all word of mouth. Our suite was tucked away far from the main action – but the word kept spreading and people kept coming. I remember a sublime moment when a bunch of college kids were hustling over before my wife lit candles to help us set up the room – their arrival was preceded by an excited “Shabbos is coming” song echoing down the halls of CPAC.

I remember the guy dressed like he was in a rock band sitting quietly and taking it all in. We were going around the room and introducing ourselves and when it was his turn he stood up and said “This is my first Shabbos meal since my grandfather died when I was seven. I’m 22 now and I’m sitting here thinking of how much I missed. I am going to put Shabbos back in my life.” And, as it turns out, he was in a rock band – a new band playing songs that promote patriotism.

Talk show hosts, campaign operatives, policy wonks, Hill staffers and journalists who otherwise would have had no Shabbos spent hour after hour enjoying a real heimishe Shabbos with divrei Torah, zmiros and, endless, amazing food. Throughout Friday night politicians and pundits came by, drank a l’chaim, said a few words, then headed back to hobnob and socialize at CPAC.

But for me, the standout visitor that Shabbos was a relative unknown. A candidate for the US Senate – outsider and Tea Party darling Ted Cruz.

Mr. Cruz came and sat modestly towards the foot of the long table. But unlike the other politicians, his wasn’t a “drop-by”. He came before Kabbolas Shabbos and he stayed for the meal and he was still there almost three hours later after most of the crowd had gone out to enjoy the more political offerings of CPAC.

At that point, according to the schedule, I was to give a 45 minute shiur on the parsha, just in case anyone wanted to stick around. There was a group of perhaps 20 or so mostly observant Jews…and this fellow Cruz. It was Shabbos Yisro and my topic was the structure of the Aseres Hadibros. Ted Cruz engaged immediately. In describing one shitah as to why the Luchos and Dibros are structured the way they are, I introduced to the otherwise almost entirely Jewish group the fact that Christians count the “10 Commandments” differently than we do and, in fact, Catholics and Protestants differ amongst themselves. Cruz already knew. “My father ‘s a pastor and I’ve argued 10 Commandments cases,” he explained. “I love this.” He was totally knowledgeable, engaged and at home and his participation turned the session into an animated, vibrant, informed discussion that went on nearly two hours.

There were many places a candidate for Senate from Texas should have been that night if his first priority was political ambition. But Ted Cruz prefered to spend his time with us, with Jews enjoying Shabbos.

Since then, I’ve had a chance to be with Senator Cruz at a number of non-political events, for example a lunch visit of Jewish Yale students to his office organized by an alumni group to which Nick and I both belong. The Senator was actually scheduled for a midday “drop-by” this time, no more. But his connection to the politically diverse students was real. He wanted to talk about Israel, then under global onslaught for responding to the terror from Gaza, and about BDS and anti-Semitism and what it feels like to be Jewish today on a liberal college campus. He shared with us his concern over the normalization and intensification of international anti-Semitism and the impact of the widespread perception of America distancing itself from Israel under the Obama administration. Cruz pushed off other meetings and stayed for lunch and beyond. Republican, Democrat and Independent, the young impressionable Jewish students were deeply impacted by the senator from Texas’ knowledge, insight, empathy and passion.

The usual rap that the Left gives conservative candidates is that they are unintelligent. It doesn’t matter if they have academic and professional accomplishments that far outstrip their Democratic opponents. That spin simply wasn’t available with Ted Cruz, whom liberal Jewish icon Alan Dershowitz has publicly proclaimed to be “off-the-charts brilliant.” So instead they spun as a negative what should have been a positive – Cruz’ willingness to stand on principle and not surrender to DC politics as usual. The knock against Cruz now is that he is “unlikeable” because he isn’t popular with the establishment. Nonsense. In the larger social settings I’ve seen and in private one-on-ones, I’ve never found Cruz to be anything other than warm, open, intimate and inspiring. That many in Washington resent his principled service is a badge of honor. As Winston Churchill famously observed – and as Jews know very well – “You have enemies? Good. That means you’ve stood up for something, sometime in your life.”

Politics is a rough business and it takes guts to stand up for what is right. The Ted Cruz I’ve seen is driven by idealism and principle – above all, a fierce love for America as an exceptional country whose uniqueness derives from its moral leadership. It is equally clear that for Ted Cruz the wellbeing of Jews is a deeply personal commitment and that in the face of rising anti-Semitism, America’s moral leadership only exists inasmuch as it is committed to protecting Jews in Israel and around the world. Rest assured, in private as in public, Ted Cruz is a true Oheiv Yisroel and the kind of unyielding moral warrior we need in the White House.

Jeff Ballabon

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/first-person/beyond-politics-shabbos-with-mr-cruz/2016/04/20/

Scan this QR code to visit this page online: