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November 27, 2014 / 5 Kislev, 5775
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70 Years Ago This Month: The Holocaust Comes To Hungary

Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz.

Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz.

(In memory of family members, friends, and residents of my hometown, Kassa (now Kosice), who perished at the hands of the Nazis.)

 

By the beginning of March 1944, Adolf Hitler had turned his attention to the destruction of the last body of Jewry still in existence within his realm.

He ordered Heinrich Himmler, who in turn authorized Adolf Eichmann, to carry out the mass removal and execution of Hungary’s Jewish community, which during the war years stood at more than 800,000 after the annexations of regions in Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia.

It required a destructive genius like Eichmann to carry out such a colossal task, particularly at a time when the German military on all fronts was in retreat or preparing for a last stand.

Eichmann assembled his most proven and efficient henchmen at Mauthausen to lay out the plan for a proper execution of the ghastly task. The elite murderers lived up to their reputation. Their strategy demanded a total of forty-six days to methodically erase the last vestige of Jewish creativity on the European continent.

In the course of the ages there wasn’t a Jewish community more convinced of its capacity for survival than the Jewish community of Hungary in the 19th and 20th centuries.

The Jews of Hungary were patriots in the fullest sense of the term. In the 1848 Hungarian uprising against Austrian Hapsburg rule Jewish volunteers participated in the ensuing battles in numbers far above their percentage of the general population. When the rebels were beaten, the Jewish community was penalized by Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph with a crushing monetary fine for tenaciously siding with the rebellious Magyars.

It was the only community this writer is aware of where even many chassidim adopted the vernacular language for everyday use in addition to or sometimes even in place of Yiddish.

The Jewish song known by almost every Jew in Hungary, religious or secular, stemmed from the Rebbe of Kallo and was written in Hungarian. The story has it that one day the Rebbe came across a shepherd who was playing an appealing melody on his flute. The Rebbe sought to learn the melody, and as he did it became erased from the shepherd’s mind. The Rebbe then penned beautiful words in Hungarian that speak loftily of the rooster announcing the breaking of the dawn, as God and His people approach one another seeking perfect union (in the Hungarian original, “szol a kakas mar”).

* * * * *

The initial anti-Jewish laws in Hungary were in the realm of numerus clauses (quotas or limits) and economic expropriation dating to the 1930s, and were not seen as a threat to survival.

With the German invasion of Russia in June 1941, followed by Hungary’s declaration of war against the Russians, able-bodied Jews were recruited into forced labor battalions used for building bridges or clearing mines in advance of regular army units. These Jews, far from their homes, were cruelly treated and thousands perished.

Rumors of the terror reached their homes but were not taken seriously because they were so unbelievable.

When the first expulsions of Jews took place, in the summer of 1941, they were explained away as actions against Jews who were not Hungarian nationals. The clear implication was that “fully emancipated” and patriotic Jews were safe and that no harm would befall them.

No wonder, then, that even as waves of anti-Jewish persecution swept over Hungary, and reports of wholesale slaughter filtered through from areas lying to the north and elsewhere, Hungarian Jews, though uneasy about the unfolding events, dismissed the notion that their very existence was in jeopardy.

* * * * *  

About the Author: Dr. Ervin Birnbaum is founder and director of Shearim Netanya, the first outreach program to Russian immigrants in Israel. He has taught at City University of New York, Haifa University and the University of Moscow; served as national superintendent of education of Youth Aliyah and as the first national superintendent of education for the Institute of Jewish Studies; and, at the request of David Ben-Gurion, founded and directed the English Language College Preparatory School at Midreshet Sde Boker.


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5 Responses to “70 Years Ago This Month: The Holocaust Comes To Hungary

  1. And the world still spouts the anti semitic dribble.

  2. it came earlier in a different way.my father-in-law,a survivor,told us stories of how his families assisted refugees trying to flee hitler..what little resources they had were stretched beyond imagination.

  3. Jerry Raketti says:

    Hungarian WW-2 story of Hope & Tragedy.

  4. Jerry Raketti says:

    There were more than 42,500 Nazi ghettos and camps throughout Europe from 1933 to 1945.

    There were 30,000 slave labor camps; 1,150 Jewish ghettos; 980 concentration camps; 1000 prisoner of war camps; 500 brothels filled with sex slaves; and thousands of other camps used for euthanizing the elderly and infirm, performing forced abortions, "Germanizing" prisoners or transporting victims to killing centers.

    The best estimate using current information available is 15 to 20 million people who died or were imprisoned in sites controlled by the Germans throughout the European continent.

  5. @Haddad.. Why ru posting an anti orthodox article which has absolutely zero to do with this article? Must be that u thought that this was a good place to Jew bash and bad mouth the orthodox? Wrong! Not appropriate. And… BTW, there’s a lot more to the reasons behind the article than you know. So much if it is the Israeli government using this for political purposes.

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Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz.

In the course of the ages there wasn’t a Jewish community more convinced of its capacity for survival than the Jewish community of Hungary in the 19th and 20th centuries.

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By bus Lidice is a 35-minute ride from Prague. It is a ten-minute walk from the Lidice bus stop through the well-kept gardens to the main building and entrance of the Lidice Memorial Museum. In the season of bloom the gardens display thousands of roses. There is little that suggests the vast human tragedy that transpired there in the course of one night seventy years ago.

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