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December 3, 2016 / 3 Kislev, 5777

Posts Tagged ‘shabbat’

When Tisha B’Av falls on Shabbat or Sunday

Thursday, August 11th, 2016

{Originally posted to the Aish HaTorah website}

Note: The following laws are based on Ashkenazi tradition, and some points are subject to varying opinion. When in doubt, AYLOR (ask your local Orthodox rabbi)

1. What are the main changes when Tisha B’Av falls on Shabbat or Sunday?

When Tisha B’Av falls on Shabbat, the main changes are:

  • The fast is postponed until Sunday.
  • Bathing is permitted on Rosh Chodesh.
  • Marital relations are forbidden on Friday night.
  • Washing any part of the body with hot water is forbidden on Shabbat.

When Tisha B’Av falls on Shabbat or Sunday, the main changes are:

  • There is no special Seuda Hamafseket before the fast.
  • Some of the laws of Tisha B’Av begin only at nightfall on Saturday night, instead of at sunset.
  • Havdalah is postponed until Sunday night.

2. When Tisha B’Av falls on Shabbat and is postponed until Sunday, is the preceding week considered as “the week in which Tisha B’Av occurs”?

There are different opinions about this. Therefore:

One should be strict about this concerning laundering and haircuts.

One may be lenient about matters concerning cutting nails and making clothes. As for meat and wine, Sefardim could eat without restriction; for Ashkenazim certain leniencies apply (for example, regarding who can eat meat at a Bris).

3. May a woman immerse in a mikveh on Friday night that is Tisha B’Av?

Yes. In this case, marital relations are permitted.

4. Are there any changes to the prayers in this situation?

Tzidkas’cha is not said at Mincha.

Pirkei Avot is not said at Mincha.

5. May one hold a public kiddush on this Shabbat?

If the kiddush can be held on a different Shabbat, it is preferable to defer it.

If the kiddush cannot be held on a different Shabbat — e.g. for an aufruff (groom prior to his wedding), it is permitted.

6. May one eat meat and drink wine at the Shabbat meals?

Yes. This is permitted even at Seuda Shlishit.

7. May one invite guests to the Shabbat meals?

Yes. However, one should not invite guests for Seuda Shlishit unless he does so regularly.

8. May one sing zemirot at the Shabbat meals?

Yes. This is permitted even at Seuda Shlishit.

9. May one go for a stroll on this Shabbat?

When the ninth of Av is Sunday, one may not go for a stroll on Shabbat after halachic noon.

When the ninth of Av is Shabbat, one may not go for a stroll at any time of the day.

10. May one visit family or friends?

No.

11. May one learn Torah on this Shabbat?

Before halachic midday, it is permitted to learn Torah.

After halachic midday, many opinions permit learning Torah. If a person can limit himself to the topics that are permitted on Tisha B’Av, it is praiseworthy.

It is permitted to read the weekly parsha and its translation all day.

12. May one take pills on Shabbat to alleviate the pains of fasting?

It is permitted to take them on Shabbat until sunset only if they are mixed with a food or drink. One should preferably prepare the mixture before Shabbat.

One may take them without water even on Saturday night, unless they are pleasant tasting.

13. May a communal Seuda Shlishit be held in shul?

No. Everyone should eat at home.

14. Are there any changes to Seuda Shlishit?

Although any food may be served, including meat and wine, and zemirot may be sung, the mood should be somewhat subdued.

A person should not say that he is eating in order to have strength to fast, but he may think this.

One must stop eating and drinking before sunset, since the fast begins at this time. People should be reminded about this, as it is unlike a regular Shabbat.

15. Must one say Grace After Meals before sunset?

It is permitted to say the Grace after sunset, but one should try to wash mayim acharonim (after waters) before sunset, if possible.

16. May one say Grace After Meals with a 3-man zimun?

Yes (unlike when the eve of Tisha B’Av falls on a regular weekday, where one should not make a zimun).

17. May one eat or drink after Seuda Shlishit?

If one said Grace After Meals before sunset, one may eat or drink until sunset. It is not necessary to have this in mind when saying Grace After Meals.

18. Which prohibitions of Tisha B’Av commence at sunset?

All the prohibitions except wearing shoes and sitting on a chair commence at sunset. These two activities are permitted until nightfall.

19. When should one change one’s shoes and Shabbat clothes?

There are two customs:

Some go to shul before nightfall and begin Ma’ariv at the usual time of Saturday night. The chazzan should say “baruch hamavdil bein kodesh lechol,” remove his shoes, and then say “barchu.” The congregation should respond to “barchu” and then remove their shoes. Care must be taken not to touch one’s shoes when removing them. The Shabbat clothes are not removed until one returns home after Ma’ariv. This is the prevalent custom in the Diaspora.

Some shuls delay the commencement of Ma’ariv, allowing people to remain at home until nightfall. At the time of nightfall, everyone should say the phrase “baruch hamavdil bein kodesh lechol,” remove his shoes, and change into weekday clothes before Ma’ariv. This is the prevalent custom in Israel.

20. According to the first custom, may one bring Tisha B’Av footwear to shul before Ma’ariv?

Even if there is an eiruv this is forbidden, since one may not prepare on Shabbat for after Shabbat. It is also forbidden to change one’s shoes before going to shul, since this is disgracing the Shabbat. It is therefore advisable to leave suitable footwear in shul before Shabbat to wear after Shabbat.

21. Is the blessing recited over the spices?

No. It is forbidden to smell spices, since a person must refrain from such a pleasure on Tisha B’Av.

22. Is the blessing recited over a Havdalah candle?

Yes. According to one custom, it is recited in shul before the reading of Lamentations. According to another custom, it is recited at home before Ma’ariv, if there is time. According to some opinions, the blessing should be recited over two regular candles and not over a braided Havdalah candle.

23. May one wash the Shabbat dishes on Saturday night?

No. They may not be washed until Tisha B’Av afternoon.

24. Should a person who is not fasting recite Havdalah before eating?

Yes. However, if he only needs to drink water throughout the fast, he should not recite Havdalah.

25. Should such a person recite Havdalah immediately after Shabbat. or wait until he needs to eat?

He should wait until he needs to eat.

26. When needing to eat on the fast day [in this case, Sunday the 10th of Av], which sections of Havdalah are recited?

The introductory verses and the blessing over spices should be omitted. The blessing over a candle should be omitted if he already recited or heard it at the termination of Shabbat, or if he is reciting Havdalah during the day.

27. Should Havdalah be recited over wine, grape juice, or another drink?

According to most opinions, beer is the most preferred drink.

If this is not possible, some opinions prefer the use of a drink that has national importance. (A rabbi should be consulted to ascertain which drinks qualify for this purpose.) Other opinions question the use of such drinks, and prefer the use of grape juice.

If nothing else is available, wine may be used.

28. If wine or grape juice is used, should the cup be given to a child to drink?

If a child above the age of six is available, the cup should be given to him.

If not, the person who recites Havdalah should drink the cup himself.

29. How much of the cup should be drunk?

A cheekful only.

30. Are children obligated to recite Havdalah before they eat?

According to most opinions, they do not recite Havdalah before eating.

THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS PERTAIN TO THOSE WHO FASTED ALL DAY SUNDAY THE 10TH OF AV:

31. After the fast, may one eat or drink before Havdalah?

With the exception of water, it is forbidden to eat or drink anything before Havdalah.

32. Which drink should be used for Havdalah?

One should use wine or grape juice. The person who recites Havdalah should drink the cup himself.

33. Which parts of Havdalah are recited?

Only the two blessings “borei p’ri hagafen” and “hamavdil.” The introductory verses are omitted, as are the blessings over the spices and candle.

34. When are the various restrictions lifted?

Some are permitted immediately upon completion of the fast (e.g. bathing, laundry and haircuts), while others remain prohibited until the following morning (meat, wine and music).

*Excerpted from “Guidelines” – over 400 commonly asked questions about the Three Weeks (Targum/Feldheim).

{The authors, Rabbis Elozor Barclay and Yitzchok Jaeger of Jerusalem, wrote the bestselling series, ‘Guidelines,’ on the laws and customs of the Jewish Holidays and essential areas of everyday Jewish life.}

Guest Author

When Tisha B’Av Occurs On Shabbat Or Sunday

Thursday, August 11th, 2016

Five tragedies occurred on Tisha B’Av. It was decreed that those who left Egypt would not enter the land of Israel, the first and second Temples were destroyed, the city of Betar was captured with thousands massacred, and Turnus Rufus plowed the site of the razed Temple. Consequently, Tisha B’Av was declared a day of national mourning and a fast day.

The fast of Tisha B’Av begins at sunset on the night preceding the fast day itself. In order to prepare oneself for the fast, the accepted custom on a weekday is to eat a regular meal without meat and wine before Minchah. Following Minchah, the last meal before the fast, the seudah mafseket, is consumed.

This meal, eaten sitting on the floor, consists of bread, water, and an egg dipped in ashes. The seudah mafseket may not be eaten as a family meal but rather as an individual one, each person in his or her own corner with Birkat HaMazon recited by each person for himself without a mezuman.

When Tisha B’Av occurs on Shabbat, the fast is postponed. It begins on Motzaei Shabbat and ends Sunday night. When the fast is postponed to Sunday or when Tisha B’Av occurs on Sunday, the final meal eaten before the beginning of the fast is the seudah shelishit, the third meal of Shabbat.

Since it is still Shabbat, during which mourning is prohibited, none of the restrictions of the seudah mafseket described above apply. Accordingly, one may eat meat, drink wine, sit around the table, and recite Birkat HaMazon with a mezuman, and there is no requirement to dip an egg in ashes. The only difference between this seudah shelishit and others eaten during the year is that this one must be terminated before the sun sets and the fast begins.

Because the words of Torah gladden the heart, studying Torah is forbidden when Tisha B’Av is on a weekday, except for passages in Scripture that deal with the destruction of the Temple and other calamities. When Erev Tisha B’Av or Tisha B’Av itself occurs on Shabbat, Torah may be studied, without restriction, on Shabbat morning and, according to many opinions, also on Shabbat afternoon. At Minchah on Shabbat Tisha B’Av or Shabbat Erev Tisha B’Av, the prayer Tzidkotchah is omitted as well as Pirkei Avot.

When Erev Tisha B’Av or Tisha B’Av itself occurs on Shabbat, the prayer V’he Noam is omitted because it was composed for recital at the inauguration of the Temple, whereas Tisha B’Av commemorates the destruction of the Temple. The prayer of Vayitein Lechah is also omitted. Kaddish Shalem is recited without Titkabel.

The procedure with Havdalah is as follows: For those who are fasting, first, the Havdalah blessing, Ata Chonantanu, is recited in the Amidah. Then, before reciting Megillat Eichah, the blessing Borei Me’orei Ha’esh is recited over candlelight but the other blessings usually recited at Havdalah are omitted. Neither wine nor besamim is used on this Motzaei Shabbat. On the evening following the fast, Sunday night, the Havdalah blessing that was omitted on Motzaei Shabbat is recited over wine, but neither flame nor besamim is used. Those who are not required to fast recite Havdalah on Motzaei Shabbat but use a Chamar Medinah beverage (such as tea, coffee, or beer).

When Tisha B’Av occurs on a weekday, leather shoes are removed before sunset. When Erev Tisha B’Av or Tisha B’Av occurs on Shabbat, individuals, in order not to display signs of mourning on Shabbat, remove their leather shoes at Ma’ariv after reciting Barchu. The chazzan first recites Baruch Hamavdil bein Kodesh Lechol and then removes them before Barchu.

When Tisha B’Av occurs on a weekday, Tachanun is omitted at Minchah on Erev Tisha B’Av and on Tisha B’Av itself, just as it is not recited on a day of celebration. This is because we believe the Temple will eventually be rebuilt on Tisha B’Av, which will then become a day of celebration.

Raphael Grunfeld

Online Fundraiser for Medical Treatment of Abayudaya Jewish Infant

Wednesday, July 27th, 2016

Mugaga Treva, 4, is the son of Nantabo Esther, a member of Namanyonyi Synagogue, one of the Abayudaya Synagogues in Uganda. The boy has a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, for which he was referred to Mulago National Hospital in Uganda. The treatment costs $750, but Esther Nantabo, a single parent, cannot afford it. A fundraising effort was launched Tuesday night which has begun to attract some donations.

The Abayudaya (“People of Judah”) are a Baganda community in eastern Uganda near the town of Mbale who practice Judaism. They are devout in their practice, keeping Kashrut, and observing Shabbat. The Abayudaya numbers are estimated at 2,000. They live in several villages and are recognized by the Reform and Conservative movements as Jews. Some of them practice strict Orthodox Rabbinical Judaism.

The group was founded by a Muganda military leader named Semei Kakungulu, who was converted to Christianity by British missionaries around 1880. When the British significantly limited his territory, and refused to recognize him as king—as they had promised, Kakungulu began seeking alternative religious affiliations, and came to believe that the customs and laws described in the Torah were true. In 1919, Kakungulu faced great resistance and was eventually ostracized when he insisted on circumcising his flock. He circumcised his sons and himself and declared that his community was Jewish. He then fled to the foot of Mt. Elgon and settled in a place called Gangama where he started a separatist sect known as Kibina Kya Bayudaya Absesiga Katonda (the Community of Jews who trust in the Lord). The British, infuriated by his move, severed all ties with him and his followers.

In 1920 a European Jew named Yosef arrived and taught the isolated community about the Jewish calendar and the Jewish holidays: Passover, Shavuot, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Succot. Yosef stayed for about six months, and educated the Abayudaya on Kashrut and Shabbat. Yosef convinced Semei Kakungulu to establish a kind of yeshiva, to pass on his teachings.

Kakungulu died in 1928, and was succeeded by Samson Mugombe, one of his disciples. The Abayudaya remained isolated for protection and survived persecution, including by Idi Amin, who outlawed Jewish rituals and destroyed synagogues. During the Amin persecutions, some of the Abayudaya converted to either Christianity or Islam. But a core group of some 300 members remained committed to Judaism, worshipping secretly, fearful that they would be discovered by their neighbors and reported to the authorities. This group later named itself She’erit Yisrael — the Remnant of Israel.

In 1962, Israeli Ambassador to Kenya Arye Oded, who at the time was studying at Makerere University, visited the Abayudaya and met Samson Mugombe. This was the first time the Abayudaya had ever met an Israeli and the first Jew they had met since Yosef. Oded conducted many long interviews with Mugombe and other leaders, and later reported on the group in his book “Religion and Politics in Uganda,” as well as in numerous articles.

In his article Shabbes Cholent in Uganda? Rabbi J. Hershy Worch wrote whimsically:

“You should have seen the grin on the faces of the young leaders of the community as they showed their elders the Shabbes-oven I had built into the packed earth floor of my bedroom, a shining smile that went from ear to ear. Eighty years they have waited for my cholent, can you imagine, the first hot food on a Shabbes morning for 80 years! Prometheus had no such thrill. Perhaps Moses, watching the Israelites licking their fingers over Manna in the wilderness may have had such naches, maybe.

“Most people know nothing about cholent, and those who do probably consider it no more than an odd quirk in the Jewish diet, something akin to gefilte-fish or latkes.

“To a hushed audience I explained the significance of the food they were eating. How Rabbinical Judaism, the Halacha, the Talmud well nigh demands hot food on Shabbes morning. This is how we Orthodox Jews may be distinguished from Karaites, Samaritans and other fundamentalists who rejected the Oral Torah. The hushed silence broke into a thunderous applause.”

JNi.Media

Leaving the Serenity of Shabbat for a Few Hours

Sunday, July 24th, 2016

{Originally posted to the author’s eponymous blog}

I was able to go 57 1/2 years without needing to travel in a vehicle on Shabbat…until yesterday, that is.

A few days ago, I found myself in the ER of Hadassa Ein Karem in Jerusalem with a torn retina. Since I had had a similar event four years earlier, I was only slightly anxious, knowing what was awaiting me with laser surgery. In a relatively short time, I had the surgery and was discharged from the hospital, arriving home, only hours after leaving.  All was doing fine–until Friday night.

Just as I was getting ready to go to sleep, I began to see flashes in the corner of my eye. Since that is a sign of a potential upcoming new tear in the retina, I sat at the edge of the bed to see if I would have any other symptoms. I felt that if I wished it away, it would stop. As luck would have it, I went to sleep with no other incidents…until the early morning when I woke up. Once again, I had other symptoms (no need for gory details!) and thought of the ER doctor’s parting words: “If you have any symptoms, no matter when, please come right back to the ER.”

And now, it was Shabbat morning, and I needed to go to the hospital. As a rav, I have had the question come to me numerous times about “what if” someone needs to go to the hospital on Shabbat–best ways to go; issues to deal with; and on and on. But this time, it was MY turn, and I was the patient. I consulted briefly with a couple of people, and off I went in an ambulance to the hospital.

When the  ambo arrived (that’s what we call itת when we watch enough medical dramas), the paramedic got out and wished me a Shabbat Shalom and inquired as to my health. But after that initial greeting of Shabbat Shalom, it felt like anything BUT Shabbat. Sitting in a vehicle, watching people still going to shul dressed in Shabbat clothesת while at the same time hearing the chatter on the dispatch radio in the ambulance, all of that created for me a dissonance that I had never really experienced before. I think the technical term is “weird.”

(It should go without saying but going to the hospital on Shabbat is a necessity in cases of emergency and even in certain cases when it is not! One should never play games with health on Shabbat or any other day. Halacha is replete with excoriations of individuals who “hesitate” in tending to a medical emergency on Shabbat.)

Arriving at the hospital, going through the “reception” process, and being directed to the Eye Department, all seemed to occur in  a bubble in which Shabbat was not “there.” Yes, on the one hand, much of the hospital was empty and there was some actual form of quiet; nevertheless, being surrounded by equipment, telephones, writing and all other forms of activity that is not done on Shabbat–all of that gave me a strange feeling, even knowing I HAD to be there.

I was fortunate to be told that, for now, I did not need additional surgery; yet the doctors said it was indeed imperative that I came in the first place. No, they said, it was not a wasted trip at all.

While I came all prepared to remain the rest of Shabbat in the hospital, for various reasons, I was, indeed, able to get home later in the early afternoon. (As to the reasons for that and as to the Halachot of whether or not one may/may not return from the hospital on Shabbat–all of that must be discussed with one’s Rav and is beyond the scope of a blog post.)

Rav Zev Shandalov

Explaining the 17th of Tammuz

Thursday, July 21st, 2016

Rabbi Brovender explains the 17th of Tammuz.

While this video is from 2008, we’ll be fasting on Sunday for the 17th of Tammuz just like they did in 2008.

Since the 17th of Tammuz fast falls out on Shabbat this year, we push it off until a day later.

Video of the Day

IDF Soldier Who Shot Downed Hebron Terrorist to Get Weekend Leave

Friday, July 8th, 2016

Elior Azaria, the soldier who shot and killed the downed terrorist in Hebron will be getting a 2-day Shabbat leave this weekend, according to the reporter, Or Heller.

Azaria has been confined to his base in an “open arrest” for the past 10 weekends while the trial against him continues.

Jewish Press News Briefs

UPDATE: Gaza Qassam Rocket Badly Damages Sderot Kindergarten

Saturday, July 2nd, 2016

A Sderot kindergarten building was badly damaged and two Israelis were treated for shock late Friday night after Gaza terrorists launched a Qassam rocket attack at the southern Israeli city.

About 15 seconds after residents were awakened by the wail of the Red Alert rocket alert, the “boom!” that comes with a rocket impact was heard — and felt — in the Gaza Belt city.

Families in Sderot and the Sha’ar Hanegev Regional Council district, and in Sapir College were forced to “wake up and run” for safe spaces late Friday night when the siren activated at 11 pm.

The rocket landed just a few seconds later.

Although religious observant families were wrapping up the Sabbath night meals and getting ready for bed at the time, many other secular Jews with young children were already fast asleep. Parents were forced to tear their children from beds to make a run for the bomb shelters — an exercise that has become second nature to many, and which triggers a flood of fear in too many more.

The kindergarten building that sustained a direct hit — badly damaged — was empty at the time, and no one was physically injured in the attack.

But medics from the Magen David Adom emergency medical response service treated two people who were near the impact site, both for shock.

Police units were deployed to the scene.

At the time of this writing — prior to the start of the Sabbath in New York — officers were ordered to remain on site.

damaged kindergarten in Sderot

Hana Levi Julian

Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking-news/red-alert-rocket-siren-wakes-up-sderot-gaza-belt-towns-friday-night/2016/07/02/

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